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Õhtune standard

Õhtune standard


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Standard asutati aastal 1827. See oli konkurent Ajad 1880. aastatel hakkas William Mudfordi toimetusel lugejaid kaotama sajandi vahetusel. Standard ja selle sõsarpaber, Õhtune standard, ostis Cyril Arthur Pearson 1904. Pearson muutis selle konservatiivist ajaleheks liberaalne, kuid see ei suutnud müüki parandada ja 1910 müüdi see Davison Dalzielile. Viis aastat hiljem müüs Dalziel selle Õhtune standard Edward Hultonile.

Otsides oma ajaleheimpeeriumi laiendamist, on selle omanik Daily Express, Lord Beaverbrook, ostis Õhtune standard 1926. aastal ja sai selle ainuomanikuks 1933. Kuigi mõjukas ajaleht, ei suutnud Beaverbook seda teha Õhtune standard rahaliseks eduks.

Ta parandas mind kindlalt kalkuleeriva pilguga ja ma panin oma parima Simoni välimuse. Ettepanek oli, et peaksin lahkuma Täht ja joonistada koomikseid Õhtune standard kahekordse palgaga, mis iganes see oli. Hämmeldununa tegin keelduvat häält. "Mida sa tahad?" ta küsis. Ta oli visa. Teema lõpetamiseks ütlesin, et soovin kuulata oma sõprade H. G. Wellsi ja Arnold Bennetti nõuandeid.

Läbirääkimised lõppesid, kui helistasin ühel hommikul keskpäeval lord Beaverbrooki poole ja leidsin ta voodist istumas, kaebliku kuju nagu Camille, kes loeb Piiblit. Ta oli lubanud mulle neli poollehte nädalas, kuid ma tahtsin esitluse kohta täpseid garantiisid. "Kurat, madal," ütles Beaverbrook. "Kas soovite paberit ka toimetada."

The Õhtune standard kuulutas oma tulekut heldelt. Keegi ei võtnud tõsiselt teateid, et ma pean avaldama sõltumatuid seisukohti. see oli uudne idee, välja arvatud aeg -ajalt mõne suure nime allkirjastatud artiklite seeria. Personali karikaturisti vaba ja regulaarne väljendus oli ennekuulmatu ja uskumatu.


Õhtune standard - ajalugu

Ekskursioonid > Sündmuste kalender > Ajalooliste markerite programm > Liikmelisus > Re-Leaf programm

Howlandi veskiküla, 1888–1889
Howland Mill Village New Bedfordis ja#8217 lõunaosas oli üks XIX sajandi kõige uuenduslikumaid ja visioonikamaid ettevõtete eluasemearendusi. Selle eesmärk oli pakkuda tekstiilivabriku töötajatele kvaliteetset ja esteetiliselt meeldivat keskkonda. Selle õilsa eksperimendi kadumine on osa ühest veenvast ja traagilisest peatükist linna sündmusterohkes ajaloos.

Selle arengu alguse juured on kveekerite ühiskondliku teadvuse, egalitarismi ja kristliku vastutustunde traditsioonis. William D. Howland, mees, kes kandis oma küla küla taga, oli Matthew (1814-1884) ja Rachel Howlandi (1816-1902) poeg. Sündis 27. märtsil 1853, ta kasvas üles leibkonnas, kus oli palju rikkust, mis oli teenitud tema vanaisa George Howlandi (1781–1852) ning tema isa ja onu, vaalapüügitööstuse George Howlandi (1806–1892) jõupingutustega. Williami ema oli erakordne naine. Rachel Smith Howlandil oli elukestev karjäär pühendunud ja väsimatu ühiskondliku aktivistina. Tema elu on New Bedfordi ajaloo üks olulisemaid ütlemata lugusid. Ta oli kohaliku, piirkondliku ja isegi üleriigilise tähtsusega tegelane. Olles alati riietatud traditsioonilistesse kveekeririietesse, oli ta tuttav (või võib -olla nad temaga tuttavad) enamiku oma aja väljapaistvate feministide ja sotsiaalsete visionääridega. Lisaks selliste asutuste asutamisele ja / või juhtimisele nagu 1868. aastal asutatud Ladies City Mission Society, 1866. aastal korraldatud vanurite naiste abistamise ühing, laste ja laste abistamise selts ning õpetlike õdede ühing 1891. aastal ja Sõprade Seltsi esineja üle 50 aasta. Ta vastutas peamiselt 1867. aasta Wamsutta Milli tekstiilstreigi vahendamise ja lõpetamise eest. Tema ja tema abikaasa sponsoreerisid ja ehitasid 1870. aastal Howlandi missioonikapli, mis oli mittekonfidentsiaalne tekstiilitöötajate palvemaja Wamsutta veski lähedal Purchase Streetil. Elu lõpus oli ta rahvaliikumisel endiselt aktiivne riiklikul tasandil. Ta kõneles rahvuslike kongresside istungjärkudel ja talle omistatakse mõiste “ ebaseaduslik sõda ”, mis oli mõnda aega liikumise koondav hüüd.

Väike ime, et William Howlandil ei oleks mitte ainult oma isa ambitsioone, vaid ka ema kaastunnet. Pärast Browni ülikooli lõpetamist 1874. aastal on samuti selge, et ta käis oma rada. Nagu paljude oma põlvkonna esindajate puhul, ei osalenud ta ka sõprade seltsi igakuistel koosolekutel. Temast sai Grace'i piiskopliku kiriku liige ja abimees. Ta abiellus Caroline Childiga 22. septembril 1875 ja tal oli kaks poega, Edward Morris ja Llewellyn. Tundub, et ta reisis palju. Ta oli ka innukas purjetaja suure jahiga ja säilitas aktiivse liikmeskonna New Bedfordi jahtklubis.
William valis oma märgi tegemiseks areneva New Bedfordi tekstiilitööstuse. Pärast Wamsutta veskis ametnikuna töötamist (1876–1880) ja aasta tekstiilitööstuse uurimist väljaspool New Bedfordi, korraldas ta 1882. aastal edukalt oma tekstiilivabriku New Bedford Manufacturing Co. tema vanemate abi.

Nii rikkad ja edukad kui George, Jr ja Matthew Howland olid vaalapüügitööstuses, lõppes nende “ raske õnn ” 1870ndatel. Arktika vaalapüügilaevastike katastroofilised kaotused 1871. ja uuesti 1876. aastal rikkusid ettevõtte ja Howlandi perekonna rahanduse. Matthew ja Rachel omasid New Bedfordis märkimisväärset kinnisvara, sealhulgas nende elamurajooni Hawthorn Streetil (praegu 81 Hawthorn Street), sadamakai ja kvartalisuurune maatükk North Streeti jalamil, praeguse pindala põhjapoolses osas. Hazelwoodi park võib -olla teiste majapidamiste hulgas. Enne kui Matthew 1884. aastal suri, müüs ta North Streeti kinnistu, mis oli varem tema loendusmaja asukoht, oma pojale New Bedford Manufacturing Co. jaoks. Hawthorn Streeti maja müüdi William W. Crapole (1830-1926) Matthew & #8217 surm. Rachelil oli endiselt juurdepääs Hazelwoodi kinnistul asuvale suvekodule, kuid tema alaline elukoht oli pärast abikaasa surma mitu aastat Lõuna -Kuues tänav 21. (Howlandidele kuulus Hazelwoodi pargis gooti tärkamise hoone, mis asub tuttavamast kivimajast põhja pool. See hoone oli varem laut ja muudeti suvekoduks millalgi pärast 1865. aastat.)

New Bedford Manufacturing Co. oli puuvillane lõng. See ei valmistanud riideid, vaid tarnis lõnga teistele New Bedfordi ja mujal asuvatele tehastele. William D. Howland oli laekur, operatsiooni direktor ja de facto juht. Teiste režissööride hulka kuulusid ka Charles W. Clifford, samuti esimene president, Charles W. Plummer ja Edward T. Pierce. Nagu kõigi New Bedfordi ajaloo veskite puhul, oli Howlandi veskite puhul tavaks ühendada direktoraadid. Pierce oli vanema Andrew G. Pierce'i poeg ja noorema Andrew G. Pierce'i vend. Vanem Pierce oli selle aja jooksul New Bedfordi tekstiilitööstuse vaieldamatult kõige võimsam mees. Pierces olid nii Wamsutta kui ka Potomska veski presidendid ning juhtisid New Bedford Manufacturer ’s Associationit, mis on veskiomanike kogu, kes püüdis sageli kehtestada ülelinnalist poliitikat linna tekstiilivabrikute palkade, tootmise ja muude majanduslike tegurite osas. .

Näib, et suur osa veski rahastamisest tuli Rotchi perekonnalt Rahvuspanga kaudu. Tuntud New Bedfordi vaalapüügi dünastia võsuke William J. Rotch (1819-1893) oli tol ajal New Bedfordi üks jõukamaid mehi. Tema ärihuvid New Bedfordis hõlmasid kogu äritegevuse spektrit. Ta oli New Bedford Cordage Co. ja Mount Washingtoni klaasitehase president ning direktor paljudes teistes juhatustes, sealhulgas Potomska veskites ja Rahvuspangas. Temast saab nii Howland Mills Corporationi kui ka Rotch Spinning Co esimene president. Tema poeg Morgan Rotch (1848-1910), nagu tema isa, linnapea, sai hiljem New Bedford Manufacturing Co. presidendiks. Edu New Bedford Manufacturing Co. -st juhtis Howlandi ambitsioonikale projektile, et hõlmata kõik tema teadmised tekstiilitööstuse kohta ja tema püsiv huvi oma tööjõu heaolu vastu. Korporatsioon Howland Mills loodi 1886. aastal. Tema eelmise projekti investoritega osteti linna lõunaosas 150 aakrit metsa ja endist puukooli.

Ostetud pakkide hulgas oli Henry H. Crapo (1804–1869) kunagise puukooli jäänuseid, kes oli New Bedfordist lahkunud palju aastaid varem ja sai lõpuks Michigani kuberneriks. Suur osa osteti kauge sugulase Cornelius Howlandi pärandist ja mitmetest muudest pakkidest. (See maa on praegu seotud ligikaudu järgmiste tänavatega: neet kadakaga, kadakas Dunbariga, Dunbar Dartmouthiga, Dartmouth Rockdale'iga, Rockdale Hemlockiga, Hemlock Cove'iga, Cove Orchardiga, Orchard Rivetiga.) omandatud ja uuritud maa, asutati Howland Mills Corporation 1888. aasta mais peenete puuvillalõngade tootjana. William J. Rotch nimetati presidendiks, William D. Howland, laekur ja direktorid olid peaaegu identsed New Bedford Manufacturing'i juhtidega. Kohe alustati tööd veski ja elukülaga. Mõlema projekti ehitamine läks kiiresti. Veski nr 1, see kompleks, mis on endiselt tuttavamast Howland Place'ist lõuna pool (veski nr 2), valmis 1888. aasta suve lõpus. Müürseppade töövõtjad olid Brownell (Alfred M.) ja Murkland (James H.) New Bedfordist. Veski projekteerija pole teada. Võimalik, et Williamil oli selle kujundamisel oma osa. Potomska veskid palkasid ta umbes 1880. aastal, et kujundada ümber selle kompleksi ruumid, et mahutada uusi masinaid. Veski avati 150 töötajaga ja see oli varustatud üle 30 000 spindliga. Kakskümmend viis suvilat ehitati 1888. aasta lõpuks ja veel kakskümmend viis 1889. aastal. Kuigi sellele kohale kavandati palju rohkem elamuarendust, ei võetud seda kunagi ette.

Kaks teadlast, kes on teinud murrangulise töö Howland Mill Village'i kallal, Thomas McMullin ja Kingston Heath, kasutasid mõlemad mõistet “utopia ”, kirjeldades William Howlandi nägemust sellest arengust. Seda on muidu raske kirjeldada. On selge, et ta uskus, et suudab suures ulatuses luua kaasaegse tootmiskeskkonna, mis ei oleks mitte ainult aktsionäridele kasumlik, vaid ka tehase töötajatele meeldiv. Sel Ameerika ajaloo perioodil ei olnud utoopilised kogukonnad haruldased. Rikkad või mõjukad mehed töötasid alati välja täiusliku maailma loomise skeeme. Tehase omanduses olnud tööliste eluase oli New Bedfordis ja mujal sel ajal tavaline, kus töömahukad veskid nõudsid sadu käsi. Tavaliselt ehitati need üürikorterid “ monotoonselt regulaarselt ja väheste mugavustega, sageli halvasti hooldatud.

Howland Mill Village oli vapustav kõrvalekalle normist. 50 ühepereelamut ehitati korraldusega, mis võimaldas väikeseid aedu ja pisut privaatsust. Suvilad paigutati käänulistele teedele veidi erineva nurga all. Teed, mis kerivad küla ümber ja läbi, kergendavad pastoraalse keskkonna tunnet. Ehitati 15 viieteistkümne toaga suvilat ja kolmekümne viie seitsme toaga suvilat. Arendusse kuulus ka üürimaja üksikutele meestele. Igas elamus oli ühiskanalisatsiooniga ühendatud sisetorustik, loputuskäimla, vann, soe ja külm jooksev vesi ning muude mugavuste hulgas ka täis betoonist kelder. Üürihinnad olid väikese suvila eest 8,50 dollarit kuus ja suurema suvila eest 10 dollarit kuus. Külas elasid igasuguse sotsiaalmajandusliku tasandi pered, kelle sissetulekud olid vahemikus 5–19 dollarit nädalas, nagu on dokumenteeritud valitsuse 1895. aasta aruandes. Lühidalt öeldes puudusid varjatud tegevuskavad. Kuigi kõige osavamate töötajate värbamine võis olla eesmärk, oli neid sama palju
oskusteta külas elavad lihttöölised. See pidi olema esimene etapp üha kasvavas veskite, eluaseme ja muude hoonete, näiteks meeste ja naiste seltsimajade, raamatukogu ning gümnaasiumi ja õhtukooli hoone arendamises.

Küla majad kujundas Bostoni arhitektuuripartnerlus Edmund M. Wheelwright (1845-1912) ja Parkman B. Haven (1858-1943). Tol ajal olid Wheelwright ja Haven suhteliselt noor ettevõte, kuigi neil oli selles piirkonnas ka muid tellimusi. Wheelwrightist sai hiljem Bostoni linnaarhitekt ja ta kavandas mitmeid tähelepanuväärseid konstruktsioone, sealhulgas Longfellow Bridge'i. Nad kavandasid arenduseks neli erinevat suvilat, mis näitasid tänapäeval valitsevate stiilide, kuninganna Anne, katusesindli ja koloonia taaselustamise elemente. Neli erinevat disainilahendust on viil-, jerkin-peaots, gambrel (Hollandi koloonia) katus ja gambrel-end. Hoonete lõikes olid igas stiilis väikesed erinevused. Selle variatsiooni näidet võib näha gambrel -katuse stiilis. Mõnedel nende kodude magamisruumidel on pea jõhkrad ja mõnel traditsioonilised viilud. Üürimaja ehitati kahekordse gambrel-otsa konstruktsioonina, suvilate ülisuur versioon. Maa ja hoonete kogumaksumus oli 107 000 dollarit. Infrastruktuuri maksumus, nagu teed, vee- ja kanalisatsiooniühendused ning haljastus, oli 38 000 dollarit.

Howlandi veskikülast sai ettevõtete rahastatud töötajate eluaseme mudel. Riiklik ajakirjandus pani tähele ja valitsuse sponsoreeritud teateid. Kõik arvustajad kiitsid väga uuenduslikke disainilahendusi ja arenduse atraktiivset keskkonda. Kriitikud märkisid nõuetekohaselt uue küla ja teiste veskidest ehitatud elamute vahelist kontrasti.

Uurija William J. Potter (1829-1893) Unitaarkirikust, New Bedfordi mõjukamast vaimulikust, nimetas Wamsutta eluaseme 1892. aastal kui "kuulsat ekstsentsi". 1894. aastal Potomska linnas Bedford Morning Mercury teatas, et & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp & nbsp remont, ilma ehitaja, omaniku ega üürniku püüdmata muuta neid atraktiivseks. ”

Howland näis olevat otsustanud oma töötajatega häid suhteid säilitada. Ta tahtis vältida pidevaid tööjõu- ja juhtimiskonflikte, mis olid tööstus- ja tootmismaastiku tavapärane osa. Lisaks valitseva palga säilitamisele halval majandusajal ja erakordse eluaseme pakkumisele kostitas ta oma töötajaid ka iga -aastase aurulaevalaevaga Martha ’s Vineyard. See tähelepanuväärselt helde žest hõlmas plaanipäraseid üritusi, nagu pesapallimäng saare meeskonnaga, rattavõistlus koos rahaliste auhindadega, muusikute bändikontsert, kes esinesid ka reisil, ja mõnus keskpäevane õhtusöök, millele järgnes tants ja laul pärastlõunal .
Aastal 1892 asutasid investorid eduga uue lõngaveski Rotch Spinning Co. See ehitati Orchardi ja Boltoni tänava (hiljem Goodyeari tehase) põhjapoolsesse otsa. Heatahtlik impeerium, mille William D. Howland oli ette näinud, jõudis kolme tootmisüksusesse, kus töötas üle tuhande töötaja, kes töötasid üle 100 000 spindli ja investeerisid miljoneid dollareid.

Õudsed ajad olid lühiajalised. Ameerika majandus koges ühte oma paljudest tsüklilistest depressioonidest, mida nimetati 1893. aasta paanikaks. Kannatav majandus tuli New Bedfordi. Kuna nõudlus kaupade järele oli madal, vähendati tekstiilivabrikute palku, kuulutati välja streigid ja 1894. aasta suveks oli linna majandus suures hädas. Aga mitte Howlandi veskites. Valdavalt jäid palgad ja tunnid kõigis kolmes veskis paanikaeelsel tasemel. New Bedfordi tootjate ühingu ’s survet Howlandile, kes oli palgakärpeid hääletades linnast väljas, ignoreeriti. Howlandi veskite töötajad jätkasid täie tööajaga töötamist ja said oma tavalist palka. Jätkuvalt maksti aktsionäridele dividende. “Otsin lähiajal paremaid aegu ” oli tema vastus ajakirjandusele.
Äritingimusi, mida Howland ette nägi ja lootis, siiski ei teki. 1897. aasta kevadeks olid kolme veski rahalised vahendid tõsises võlgnevuses. Kuigi Howland polnud veskitelt varastanud, oli ta investorite eest varjanud veskite kogutud võla kohutavat iseloomu. Kuulujutud Howlandi veskite finantsprobleemidest liikusid ringi. Kui William D. Howlandil oli lootust rohkem aega osta, pühiti see 1897. aasta aprillis toimunud sündmustes teises veskis.

Samal ajal, kui William D. Howland võitles oma veskite tuleviku eest, rüüstasid ilmselt selle juhid Bennett Manufacturing Co. ja Columbia Spinning Co. (hiljem Fairhaven Mills). Need kaks veskit kuulusid Howlandi veskitele sarnaselt Frank R. Hadley juhtimisel ja neid kasutati sarnaselt. (Iroonilisel kombel oli Hadley ainus veskiomanik, kes hääletas 1894. aasta streiki vallandanud palgakärbete vastu.) Hadley jt väidetava omastamise avastamisest teatati aprilli keskel 1897. Hadley pandi oma palatiaalsesse virtuaalsesse koduarestisse County Streeti mõis (praegu 689 County St.) Bennett Millsi suurejoonelise pankrotiga kõigi silmis tahtis William Howland tehase võlgade tasumiseks laenu 200 000 dollarit. 23. aprillil taotles ta laenu rahvuspangast, mille isa oli aidanud leida ja mille direktor ta oli. Mitte ainult ei laenatud, vaid nõuti, et ta lubaks audiitoritel tema raamatuid uurida. Hiljem tehti kindlaks, et veskid olid võlgades üle 500 000 dollari.

Häiritud Howland lahkus pangast koos oma raamatupidajaga. Howlandi veskite rahaline ebaõnnestumine oli kohe -kohe ees. Ta teadis, et tõde, mille ta oli investorite eest varjanud, saab teatavaks. Need investorid, kellest paljud olid lähedased kaastöötajad ja suguvõsad, kes olid pärit põlvkondadest, kandsid suurt rahalist kahju. Kinnitanud oma raamatupidajale, et ta ei tee midagi ekstreemset, läksid nende teed lahku. Varsti pärast seda, umbes kell 10.00, kõndis William D. Howland North Streeti jalamil asuva pere doki juurde ja hüppas sadamasse, võttes endalt elu. Samal päeval suri Frank Hadley oma kodus.
Howlandi surnukeha ei leitud pärast tema enesetappu ligi kaks nädalat. Tema laip oli kuidagi doki all hõljunud. Tema kellaaeg peatati kell 10:15. Enne tema keha avastamist olid spekulatsioonid tema kadumise kohta ja teda erinevates kohtades märganud. Ta jättis maha oma naise ja kaks poega. Surma ajal elas ta Ash Street 52, maal, mis oli varem osa tema isa pärandist. Ta omas suvemaja peremaal Point Roadil, nüüd Brocki avenüül. See 1890. aastal ehitatud hoone, mis on oma disainilt väga sarnane Howland Mill Village'i suvilatega, on endiselt muutunud, kuid suurepärases seisukorras Hazelwoodi pargis.

Howlandi veskid tegutsesid kuni 1899. aastani Andrew G. Pierce, juuniori juhtimisel. Töötingimused ja töötasu veskites taastusid teiste veskite omadest. Korporatsioon nimega New England Cotton Yarn Co. ostis nii kolm Howlandi veskit kui ka ebaõnnestunud Bennetti veskid. Howland Mills ja Rotch
Seejärel ostis uus ettevõte ketramisrajatised ja nimetas need ümber Gosnoldi veskiteks. See ettevõte tegutses aastaid puuvillase tekstiili eduka tootjana, elades isegi suure depressiooni üle.

Küla suvilad müüdi üksikult maha pärast Howlandi veskite hävimist. Küla ümbritsevat maad nõudsid lõpuks kinnisvaraarendajad. Erarahastatud kolmekorruseline üürimaja sai linnas valitsevaks veskimajade vormiks. Howlandi veskiküla ideaalidest sai kiiresti meeldiv mälestus. See oli viimane ettevõtte omandis olev töötajate eluase New Bedfordis.

Ligikaudu 45 küla esialgsest 50 suvilast on endiselt püsti. Ma usun, et varem Bolton Streeti idaküljel asunud üürikorter viidi Hemlock Streetile ja tõsteti aastatel 1913–1924 ühe taseme. See on dramaatiliselt muutunud kujul. Kolm maja, mis asusid samuti Bolton Streeti idaküljel, eemaldati, tõenäoliselt lammutati need aastatel 1913–1924. Võimalik, et maja lammutati, et üürida Hemlock Streetile. Eelduste kinnitamiseks on vaja külade muutuste üksikasjalikumat uurimist. Seal oli ka suur viilkatusega maja veski superintendendi jaoks (lammutatud.) See maja asus Cove ja Orchard Streets'i nurga lähedal. See asus tõenäoliselt veski ehitamise ajal sellel alal, kuigi see võis sinna kolida. See on selgelt näha 1888. aastal tehtud veski ehitusfotol. Maja oli suur 2 1 𔊪 lugu viilkatusega Kreeka ärkamine, millele hiljem lisati viktoriaanlik mähis.

Bibliograafia
Allen, Everett S. Valguse lapsed: New Bedfordi vaalapüügi tõus ja langus ning Arktika laevastiku surm. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973.

"Ülesanded. Bennetti ja Columbia asjade sassis." New Bedfordi õhtune standard, 15. aprill 1897: 1.

New Bedford City atlas, Massachusetts. Boston: George W. Walker & amp., 1881.

New Bedfordi linna atlas, Massachusetts. Boston: Walkeri litograafia ja kirjastamisettevõte, 1911.

& quot; Kapital ja töö harmoonias: Howland Mills pidas Clevelandi tavalise edasimüüja mudeliks. & quot; New Bedford Evening Standard 25. veebruar 1891: 3.

& quot; Hingedega ettevõtted: kaks tootmisettevõtet korraldavad töötajatele väljasõidu. & quot; New Bedford Evening Standard, 20. juuli 1891: 2.

Crapo, Henry H. Lugu puuvillast ja selle valmistamisest kangaks New Bedfordis. Old Dartmouthi ajaloolised visandid, nr 67. New Bedford, MA: Old Dartmouthi ajalooselts, 1937.

"Frank R. Hadley surm." New Bedford Evening Standard, 23. aprill 1897: 1.

Emery, William M. Howlandi pärijad on lugu perekonnast ja varandusest ning proua Hetty H. Greeni jaoks loodud usalduse pärand. New Bedford, MA: E. Anthony ja pojad, 1919.

Gould, Elgin. R. L. ja Ameerika Ühendriigid. Tööbüroo. Töörahva eluase. Valmistatud töövoliniku Carroll D. Wrighti juhtimisel. Washington: valitsuse trükikoda, 1895.

Heath, Kingston Wm. & quot; Howland Mill Village: katkendlik unistus tööstusliku utoopia jaoks. & quot; Koha Patina: New Englandi tööstusmaastiku kultuuriline ilmastik. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2001. 86-116.

Heath, Kingston Wm. & quot; Howlandi veskiküla: puuduv peatükk modellitööliste elamutes. & quot; Vanaaegne New England 75 (1997): 64-111.

& quot; Koduasjad: The Howland Mills. & quot; New Bedford Evening Standard 15. märts 1889: 4.

Teade Howlandi veski nr 2, praeguse Howland Place'i rajatise ehitamise algusest. Tuvastab töövõtjad.

Howland, Ellis L. & quot; Hazelwood: Linna uue pargi ajalugu Clarki punktil. & Quot; New Bedford Evening Standard 27. juuli 1901: 10.

& quot; Howland Mills. & quot; New Bedford Evening Standard 3. oktoober 1889: 4.
Suur osa sellest lühikesest artiklist räägib Howlandi veskikülast, sealhulgas selle ehituse ja mugavuste üksikasjadest.

& quot; Howland Mills Corporation: ettevõtte organisatsioon, mis tänaseni toimib. & quot; New Bedford Evening Standard 19. mai 1888: 1.

& quot; Howland Mills kaasatud: veel kolm puuvillakorporatsiooni, mis on finantsseisundis. & quot; New Bedford Morning Mercury, 24. aprill 1897: 1.

Howland Mill Village'i ajalooline piirkond, New Bedford, (Bristoli maakond) Massachusetts. Ameerika Ühendriikide siseministeerium: National Park Service, 1996. Vormid ja kirjeldus ajalooliste paikade riiklikku registrisse kandmiseks.

McMullin, Thomas Austin. “Istustrialiseerimine ja sotsiaalsed muutused XIX sajandi sadamalinnas: New Bedford, Massachusetts, 1865-1900. Wisconsini ülikool/Madison, 1976.

McMullin, Thomas Austin. & quot; Kadunud alternatiiv: William D. Howlandi linnatööstuslik utoopia. & quot; The New England Quarterly 55 (märts 1982): 25-38.

Montgomery, David, 1927-. Väljaspool võrdsust: tööjõud ja radikaalsed vabariiklased, 1862–1872. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1981. 1967. aasta kordustrükk. avaldanud Knopf, New York, lisateabega.

& quot; hr. Howland leiti: kadunud mees suri North Street Dockis. & Quot; New Bedford Evening Standard, 6. mai 1897: 1, 8.

& quot; Uued puuvillaveskid: kiire töö Howland Mills'i ehitamisel. & quot; New Bedfordi õhtune standard, 14. august 1888: 1.

"Uus missiooni kabel." New Bedfordi õhtune standard, 17. detsember 1870: 2.

Pease, Zephaniah W., William L. Sayer ja George A. Hough. New Bedford, Massachusetts: selle ajalugu, tööstusharud, asutused ja vaatamisväärsused. New Bedford, MA: New Bedfordi kaubandusnõukogu, 1889.

& quot; Rachel S. Howland: Surm endise uue Bedfordi naise ja silmapaistva sõbra provintsis. & quot; New Bedford Evening Standard 14. august 1902: 4.

Roediger, David R. ja Philip Sheldon Foner, 1910-. Meie oma aeg: Ameerika tööjõu ajalugu ja tööpäev. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.

Sanborni tulekindlustuskaardid: Massachusetts [1867-1950]. Mikrofilm toim. [Teaneck, NJ]: Chadwyck-Healey, 1983.

& quot; Ikka kindel: Mills lukustub täna õhtul ja#8230W. D. Howland selgitab oma seisukohta. & Quot; New Bedford Evening Standard 21. august 1894: 8.

& quot; Streik: Howlandi süsteem käivitub esmaspäeval. & quot; New Bedford Morning Mercury, 23. august 1894: 1, 5, 8.

& quot; 10 000 jõudeolekut: suurim löök New Bedfordi ajaloos. & quot; New Bedfordi õhtune standard, 20. august 1894: 1, 4.

& quot; Arbitraažiks …Howland Corporations alustada esmaspäeval. & quot; New Bedford Evening Standard 22. august 1894: 1.

& quot; Tülikad ajad: lugu kahest päevast New Bedfordi kõige pimedamast ajaloost. & quot; New Bedford Morning Mercury, 26. aprill 1897: 1, 5, 8.

& quot; Palgakonverents: avatakse neljapäeval Bennetti veskis. & quot; New Bedford Evening Standard 10. september 1895: 1, 8.
& quot; hr. Howland käsutab oma esindatavate ettevõtete töötajate täielikku usaldust ja lugupidamist. & quot

& quot; Veed lõpuks loobuvad surnutest: William D. Howlandi surnukeha leiti North Street Dockist. & quot; New Bedford Morning Mercury 7. mai 1897: 8.

Whitney, Jessamine S. ja Ameerika Ühendriikide tööministeerium. Lastebüroo. Imikute suremus: väliuuringu tulemused New Bedfordis, Mass., Põhinedes sündidel ühel aastal. Washington: DC: valitsuse trükikoda, 1920.

& quot; Wrecked Mills. & quot; New Bedford Evening Standard, 4. mai 1897: 1.


The Evening Standard 's West Endi lõplik väljaanne: mis on nime all?

Aga milleks West Endi lõplik nimi alles jätta? Ja miks seda nimi, mis on rohkem seotud hiljutise lõppväljaandega? Sest Standard suudab endiselt kogu pärastlõunal uudiste tegemiseks muudatusi teha. Aga ka sellepärast, et West Endi finaali idee on osa lehest.

Hommikused ajalehed ei tee oma väljaandeid kuigi palju, välja arvatud harvadel juhtudel, kui keset ööd ilmneb mõni oluline fakt - näiteks valimiste lõpptulemus. Et välja selgitada, millise Guardiani väljaande olete ostnud, peate esikülje vasakus alanurgas kokku lugema rea ​​pisikesi tähti (viis on lõplik).

Õhtulehed on erinevad. Päevadel enne kommertsringhäälingut - aegadel, mil Londonil oli kolm õhtulehte, mille igapäevane müük oli 3 m naabruses - võib antud väljaanne olla teie konkreetse teabe ainus allikas. Neid oli mõtet trumbata.

Oletame, et olete 1920. aastate suveõhtul Nottinghamis ja soovite teada, kuidas Harold Larwoodil läinud on. Otsite Nottinghami õhtuuudiste roosa paberiga väljaannet, sest nagu eespool öeldud-roosa tähendab, et sellel on Trent Bridge'i mängulähedased kriketimängud. Väljaannete nimed võiksid teile öelda, mida õhtuleht hõlmas, kellele see oli mõeldud. Ja kuna neid tähistati sageli värvilukuga-ainus värviplekk mustvalgel esilehel-, võivad need olla ka paberile meeldejäävaimad kaubamärgid.

1960ndate alguses analüüsis disainiajakiri Typographica Londoni õhtulehtede värvilukku nii, nagu oleks tegemist rahvakunstiga. Varasemates väljaannetes võis tähti pritsida, kuid just finaalid - need, mis lubasid kõike - said kõige keerukama dekoratiivse käsitluse. Vana Londoni õhtuuudiste viimasel ööväljaandel oli uhke kahevärviline kujundus ja suur punane päike loojus Püha Pauli päikeseloojangu ajal rõhutas, kui hilja viimane väljaanne trükiti ja kui ajakohane oli selle sisu, see on kiireim ajaleht maailmas.

Viimane Londoni õhtustandard, West Endi finaal, kandis Piccadilly Circuses Erose kuju sinist kujutist, rõhutamaks ajalehe kõrgetasemelist atraktiivsust, klubi pärandit ja tugevust meelelahutuses. See oli ainus Standardi väljaanne, millel Eros siis ilmus. See, et Eros sai ajalehe kuvandi lahutamatuks osaks - suudab seda reklaamides isegi ilma nimeta seista - näitab, kui suur osa Standardi turundusest West Endi finaalis on olnud. Nimi on esiküljel juba Erosi pildi säilinud. Ja arvestades jõuka lugejaskonna tähtsust vaba Standardi reklaamiperspektiividele, võib sellel olla hea põhjus.

MediaGuardiani uudistelauaga ühendust võtmiseks saatke e -kiri [email protected] või helistage telefonil 020 3353 3857. Kõigi muude küsimuste korral helistage Guardiani peakilpi telefonil 020 3353 2000.

Kui kirjutate avaldamiseks kommentaari, märkige palun selgelt "avaldamiseks".


Õhtutäht ehitati Swindoni tehases 1960. aastal. Kuigi viimane ehitati, ei jäänud see numbriliselt viimaseks 9F -ks, kuna Crewe Works oli juba suurema arvu mootoritega valmis saanud. [3] See oli varustatud BR1G-tüüpi pakkumisega [4] ja sellele anti BR Locomotive Greeni värv, mis on tavaliselt ette nähtud reisiveduritele, ja see oli varustatud vaskkattega kahekordse korstnaga. [5] Kõik teised raskeveokite klassi liikmed värviti vooderdamata mustaks. [6]

Nime muutmine

92220 oli ainuke klass 9F, mis sai BR -ga sõites nime (ja maksuga vooderdatud reisiekspressis BR Locomotive Green), ehkki teised 9F -id on hiljem säilinud.

Nimi Õhtutäht valiti pärast ajakirja BR Western Region Staff Magazine ajavahemikul 1959-60 toimunud võistlust. There were three competition winners, Driver T.M. Phillips (Aberystwyth), Boilermaker J.S. Sathi (Old Oak Common) and F.L. Pugh (Paddington), who had all suggested Evening Star. [5]

A special commemorative plate was affixed below the nameplate on the smoke deflectors. The commemorative plate reads:

The wooden patterns for this commemorative plate and the engine's name plate were both carved by pattern maker Fred Marsh.

Naming ceremony Edit

The naming ceremony took place on 18 March 1960 at the Swindon Works, where the locomotive was built. A speech was given by R.F. Hanks, Chairman of the Western Area Board of British Transport Commission: [7]

But it is also a very great day for Swindon, and, to my friends from other Regions and from the B.T.C., I trust I shall not be considered parochial when I say that it is a proud day for Great Western men everywhere who will find much satisfaction, since there had to be a "last one" that it should fall to the lot of Swindon to see the job through. [..] I am sure it has been truly said that no other product of man’s mind has ever exercised such a compelling hold upon the public’s imagination as the steam locomotive. No other machine, in its day, has been a more faithful friend to mankind and has contributed more to the cause of industrial prosperity in this, the land of its birth, and throughout the world.

The loco was then named by Keith Grand of the British Transport Commission, by the unveiling of the nameplate, naming it Evening Star. [7]

92220 was used over the Western Region and over the Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway line. Its main duties were as a heavy freight locomotive. However, 92220 was never just any locomotive, its working was closely controlled "to ensure she returned home regularly for cleaning and maintenance in view of the special workings and exhibitions for which the engine was required". [8]

On 27–28 June and 1 July 1960, No. 92220, then allocated to Cardiff Canton shed, hauled the BR Western Region's flagship Paddington to Cardiff, Swansea, Neyland and Fishguard Harbour passenger express trains, the London bound Red Dragon and the return Capitals United Express between Cardiff and Paddington, reportedly having to delay its arrival at Paddington to allow for completion of restaurant services because it was running so early easily outperforming the regular Britannia passenger express locomotives, which it was observed overtaking (while hauling a full rake of 10+ passenger express coaches) on several occasions. However, its career on these flagship services was cut short, by order of BR senior management, allegedly from fear of damage to its running gear which wasn't designed for extended high speed express work. BR management's embargo, issued after they received word of the runs on 27–28 June, wasn't enforced until after driver Eddie Broom, head of Canton Shed's Local Departmental Committee (the local branch shop steward of ASLEF, the Associated Society of Locomotive Engineers and Firemen's extremely powerful trades union [9] ), had his turn on 92220's down Capitals United Express run, on 1 July 1960. [10] [11] [12]

On 16 July 1962 and 18 July 1962, the locomotive was photographed at Gloucester Barnwood shed yard, [13] and on 8 September 1962 it hauled the last Pines Express on the Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway. [14] Evening Star was recorded hauling passenger express trains at over 90 mph (140 km/h) on its Red Dragon ja Capitals United Express runs. [15] 92220 was withdrawn in 1965 and stored at Severn Tunnel Junction Marshalling Yard, after incurring minor damage in a shunting accident at Cardiff Docks. It had a working life of only five years. It was subsequently preserved as part of the National Collection. In late 1966, the locomotive, by then in decrepit condition, was towed to Crewe Works via Shrewsbury for overhaul and restoration. [16]

Evening Star remained in operation into the 1980s and is one of nine surviving 9Fs. From July 1973 it operated on the Keighley & Worth Valley Railway, moving to the National Railway Museum, York in May 1975. In 1986 it was loaned to the North Yorkshire Moors Railway and in 1989 to the West Somerset Railway. [17] Since withdrawal, it has been a static exhibit at the National Railway Museum. [15]

After a brief period displayed at the National Railway Museum Shildon, the engine returned to its birthplace, Swindon Works, on 3 September 2008. Evening Star remained on display for two years at the Swindon Steam Railway Museum to celebrate its 50th anniversary. It returned to York in 2010, whilst the GWR locomotive No. 4003 Lode Star took its place at Swindon.


Montgomery County NY Newspapers and Obituaries

NOTE: Additional records that apply to Montgomery County are also on the New York Newspapers and Obituaries page.

Amsterdam Newspapers and Obituaries

Amsterdam NY Daily Democrat and Recorder 1884-1974 Fulton History

Recorder 11/02/2013 to Current Genealogy Bank

Canajoharie Newspapers and Obituaries

Canajoharie NY Courier 1878-1942 Fulton History

Canajoharie NY Courier Standard Enterprise 1975-1987 Fulton History

Canajoharie NY Radii 1863-1911 Fulton History

Fonda Newspapers and Obituaries

Fort Plain Newspapers and Obituaries

Courier-Standard-Enterprise 07/09/2010 to Current Genealogy Bank

Fort Plains NY Mohawk Valley Register 1854-1893 Fulton History

Mohawk Valley register. Fort Plain, N.Y. 1854-03-23 to 1860-12-27 NYS Historic Newspapers

St Johnsville Newspapers and Obituaries

St Johnsville NY Enterprise 1901-1972 Fulton History

St Johnsville NY News 1903-1925 Fulton History

Offline Newspapers for Montgomery County

According to the US Newspaper Directory, the following newspapers were printed in this county, so there may be paper or microfilm copies available. Lisateavet võrguühenduseta ajalehtede leidmise kohta leiate meie artiklist võrguühenduseta ajalehtede leidmise kohta.

Amsterdam: Amsterdam Daily Democrat and Evening Recorder. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1894-1902

Amsterdam: Amsterdam Daily Democrat. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1879-1886

Amsterdam: Amsterdam Democrat. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1870-1879

Amsterdam: Amsterdam Democrat. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1882-1902

Amsterdam: Amsterdam Evening Recorder and Daily Democrat. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1902-1974

Amsterdam: Amsterdam Intelligencer. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1846-1854

Amsterdam: Amsterdam Star. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1994-1996

Amsterdam: Amsterdam Weekly Democrat and Broadalbin Herald. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1879-1880

Amsterdam: Daily Democrat. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1886-1893

Amsterdam: Intelligencer, and Mohawk Advertiser. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1834-1846

Amsterdam: Mohawk Gazette. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1832-1834

Amsterdam: Recorder. ([Amsterdam, N.Y.]) 1977-Current

Amsterdam: Semi-Weekly Recorder and Democrat. (Amsterdam, N.Y.) 1902-1935

Canajoharie: Canajoharie Courier. (Canajoharie, N.Y.) 1879-1943

Canajoharie: Canajoharie Radii and Tax-Payers' Journal. (Canajoharie, N.Y.) 1863-1877

Canajoharie: Canajoharie Radii. (Canajoharie, N.Y.) 1858-1863

Canajoharie: Canajoharie Radii. (Canajoharie, N.Y.) 1877-1919

Canajoharie: Mohawk Valley Gazette. (Canajoharie, N.Y.) 1848-1849

Fonda: American Star. (Fonda, N.Y.) 1855-1857

Fonda: Fonda Democrat. (Fonda, N.Y.) 1902-1912

Fonda: Fonda Herald. (Fonda, Montgomery County, N.Y.) 1837-1841

Fonda: Fonda Herald. and Montgomery County Advertiser. (Fonda, N.Y.) 1841-1843

Fonda: Fonda Sentinel. (Fonda, N.Y.) 1843-1864

Fonda: Mohawk Valley American. (Fonda, N.Y.) 1857-1864

Fonda: Mohawk Valley Democrat. (Fonda, Montgomery County, N.Y.) 1864-1902

Fonda: Mohawk Valley Democrat. (Fonda, N.Y.) 1912-1990

Fort Plain: Fort Plain Free Press, Mohawk Valley Register. (Fort Plain, N.Y.) 1921-1940

Fort Plain: Fort Plain Free Press. (Fort Plain, N.Y.) 1884-1921

Fort Plain: Fort Plain Journal. (Fort Plain, N.Y.) 1836-1841

Fort Plain: Mohawk Valley Register and Fort Plain Journal. (Fort Plain, N.Y.) 1866-1870

Fort Plain: Mohawk Valley Register. (Fort Plain [N.Y.]) 1854-1866

Fort Plain: Mohawk Valley Register. (Fort Plain, N.Y.) 1870-1921

Fort Plain: Montgomery Phoenix and Fort Plain Advertiser. (Fort Plain, N.Y.) 1841-1849

Fort Plain: Montgomery Phoenix. (Fort Plain [N.Y.]) 1849-1854

Fultonville: Montgomery County Republican. (Fultonville, N.Y.) 1856-1916

Fultonville: Montgomery County Whig. (Fultonville, N.Y.) 1851-1856

Fultonville: Montgomery Whig. (Fultonville, N.Y.) 1839-1851

Minden: Fort Plain Watch Tower. (Minden (Fort-Plain Village, Montgomery County, N.Y.)) 1827-1830

St Johnsville: Enterprise and News. (St. Johnsville, N.Y.) 1941-1950

St Johnsville: St. Johnsville Enterprise & News. (St. Johnsville, N.Y.) 1951-1954

Video selle saidi kasutamiseks

New York Map

Montgomery County shown in red

Uuringu näpunäide

Newspapers can be a treasure trove of information for your ancestors. Be sure to search the newspapers in the town/city where your ancestor lived, as well as the surrounding area. Obituaries were generally published in about 1890 or later, though in some areas they were printed previously. Death and marriage notices may appear earlier.


London Evening Standard

Businessman Charles Baldwin, with founder and first editor Dr Stanley Lees Giffard, began publishing the London Evening Standard in 1827 as Standard. By 1860 it had two editions, the morning edition Standardja Õhtune standard, the latter eventually became the only edition due to its greater popularity.

This paper was renowned for its foreign news coverage, and also covered news on the arts. Standard was “staunchly conservative” at times, and even suffered a loss in sales after heavily criticising the Labour party during the 1945 general election, stating that the party executives wanted to be “dictators”.

Being no stranger to controversy, Standard was even banned in Italy and Germany during the Second World War after their top cartoonist, David Low, created unfavourable illustrations of Mussolini and Hitler. Low toned down his critical expression after an appeal from Lord Halifax who was foreign secretary at the time but later expressed regret in doing so.

The London Evening Standard is still in publication as a free daily newspaper.

Selle ajalehe jaoks on meie digitaalses arhiivis järgmised pealkirjad või need on kavandatud:

  • 1827–1909 The Standard
  • 1860–1905 The evening standard
  • 1905–14 The evening standard and St. James gazette
  • 1920–74 Evening standard

This newspaper is published by ESI Media in London, London, Inglismaa. See digiteeriti ja tehti esmakordselt kättesaadavaks Briti ajalehearhiivis aastal May 3, 2013 . Lisati viimased numbrid May 18, 2017 .


Evening Standard - History

By Illingworth, 'The Daily Mail', January 14, 1948

Arabs and Jews arm themselves to the teeth.

By Low, 'The Evening Standard', March 3, 1948

'Battle of the Roads'. Arab irregular forces stream into Palestine, clash with Jewish forces in an all out "civil war".

By Low, 'The Evenging Standard', March 12, 1948

Britain washes her hands of Palestine while a coming massacre lines the horizon.

By Illingworth, 'Punch', March 31, 1948

The British government announced its decision to withdraw from Palestine on May 15, 1948.

By Low, 'The Evening Standard', April 16, 1948

By Illingworth, 'The Daily Mail', April 28, 1948

By Low, 'The Evening Standard', April 28, 1948

By Illingworth, 'The Daily Mail', May 10, 1948

On May 14, the State of Israel was born, hours before the expiration of the British mandate at midnight.
On May 15, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq and Transjordan invade Israel.

By Illingworth, 'The Daily Mail', May 11, 1948

By Seaman, 'The New York Times', May 14, 1948

By Ian Gage, Source: Bill Tolley

Caption: Palestine - patiently waiting to go home.

Sketch by Eric Ainsworth, 'Picture Post', May, 1948

Sketch by Picture Post Editor, Edgar Ainsworth, May 14, 1948, London

Arab stronghold Ein Karem, just outside Jerusalem.

Sketch by Picture Post Editor, Edgar Ainsworth, May 15, 1948, London

Inside a Haganah Battle HQ, Tel Aviv.

By Low, 'The Evening Standard', September 23, 1948

UN mediator Count Bernadotte dies in a gun attack on his car in Jerusalem by the Stern gang, replaced by his deputy Ralph Bunche.


Disadvantages Explained

One problem with a gold standard is that the size and health of a country's economy are dependent upon its supply of gold.   The economy is not reliant on the resourcefulness of its people and businesses. Countries without any gold are at a competitive disadvantage.

The United States never had that problem. It was the world's second-largest gold mining country after Australia. Most gold mining in the United States occurs on federally owned lands in 12 western states.   According to the National Mining Association, Nevada is the primary source. Many developing countries are also major gold producers.  

The gold standard makes countries obsessed with keeping their gold. They ignore the more important task of improving the business climate. During the Great Depression, the Federal Reserve raised interest rates. It wanted to make dollars more valuable and prevent people from demanding gold, but it should have been lowering rates to stimulate the economy.

Government actions to protect their gold reserves caused significant fluctuations in the economy. In fact, between 1890 and 1905, the U.S. economy suffered five major recessions for this reason. Edward M. Gramlich mentioned these facts in his remarks at the 24th Annual Conference of the Eastern Economic Association on February 27, 1998.   Gramlich was a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve.


Evening Standard - History


SHORT STORY INDEX

THE HISTORY OF THE EVENING NEWS

SISSEJUHATUS

The information presented below has been organised in the form of a timeline, detailing certain key events in the newspaper's history from 1881 to 1987. It is intended as a general overview of the newspaper which I hope will be of interest to those curious about the origins and history of the Õhtuuudised. The facts assembled here have been derived from various sources which include issues of the newspaper itself, Internet sites and several publications which I have listed at the bottom of this web page.

The Õhtuuudised was founded in 1881 by Coleridge Kennedy and Harry Marks. The first edition of the newspaper was published on July 26, 1881 and was priced at one halfpenny. It was four pages long with six columns to a page and was edited by Martin Fradd, who had previously edited the Torquay Evening News in Devon. Curiously, the very first issue of the Õhtuuudised made no announcement of the fact that it was the first edition, nor was there any proclamation of editorial policy. Unheralded, the paper simply came out.

The original daily circulation of the Õhtuuudised totalled a mere 10,000 copies. In the early years of its life the newspaper was distributed in London from traps drawn by ponies.

Martin Fradd, together with several of his associates (also from Devon), set up the original newspaper offices of the Õhtuuudised at 83-85 Farringdon Street, Ludgate Circus, London, E.C. The building that housed the offices of the newspaper was in fact situated in an alley just off Farringdon Street.


The Evening News, July 26, 1881

Soon after its inception, the Õhtuuudised, which had originally entertained somewhat liberal aspirations, became the voice of the Conservative Party when it was bought by the Conservative Newspaper Company Ltd. At this point Martin Fradd was replaced as editor by Frederick A. Hyndman whose own brief tenure came to an end when Charles Williams, a former war correspondent, took over as editor in 1882.

In 1882, the Õhtuuudised headquarters were relocated to a ramshackle building at 12 Whitefriars Street, London, E.C. The newspaper was to remain at this address for the next twenty years.

In 1883 Frank Harris (1856-1931) was appointed as the new editor. Harris held the position for four years during which time he became known for his sensationalising headlines. He left in 1887 to become editor of the Iga kahe nädala ülevaade. His successor was Dr. I. Rubie.

On November 22, 1888, the editors of the Õhtuuudised announced that the circulation of the newspaper had reached 219,000 copies.

In 1889 Rubie left the Õhtuuudised and was succeeded by W. R. Lawson who himself was replaced the same year by J. H. Copleston who held the post from 1889-1894.

On May 13, 1889, the Evening Post, a rival newspaper, lost out in the circulation battle and was absorbed by the Õhtuuudised. From this date onwards the new amalgamated paper carried the full title of "The Evening News and Post," and was now owned by the Union Newspaper Company Ltd.

From 1889 onwards the Evening News and Post proudly claimed to have the "largest sale of any evening paper in London."


Alfred and Harold Harmsworth

By the summer of 1894, the newspaper, which was under the control of city financier Harry Marks, was struggling financially. On August 30, 1894, the nearly-bankrupt Evening News and Post was acquired for 25,000 by the brothers Alfred Harmsworth (1865-1922) and Harold Harmsworth (1868-1940), who were to become the first Lord Northcliffe and the first Lord Rothermere respectively. The Harmsworth brothers appointed Kennedy Jones (1865-1921), a brilliant young journalist from Glasgow, as the new editor of the Evening News and Post. The paper was to remain under the ownership of the Harmsworth family empire for its entire lifespan.

On September 17, 1894, the "and Post" was dropped from the title and the newspaper reverted back to its original name the Õhtuuudised. In the same month the paper announced that its average daily sale had increased to 110,000 copies.

The Õhtuuudised broke the world record for the highest individual daily sale of a newspaper on November 15, 1894 when 394,447 copies were sold.

By March 1896 the daily circulation of the Õhtuuudised had increased to over 250,000 copies. In the same year the successful editorship of Kennedy Jones came to an end when he was succeeded as editor by Walter J. Evans.

On August 26, 1901, the Õhtuuudised absorbed another of its rivals, the Evening Mail. From thereon the full title of the newspaper became "The Evening News and Mail."

The Evening News and Mail was the first newspaper to report the death of Queen Victoria on January 22, 1901. Throughout its history, the Evening News prided itself on being "first with the news." For many years this catchphrase reflected the overriding work ethic associated with being a reporter for the newspaper.

In 1902 the offices of the Õhtuuudised were moved from Whitefriars Street to nearby Carmelite House, which was built in 1898, in Carmelite Street, London, E.C.4. The headquarters of the Õhtuuudised remained at Carmelite House for several decades. It was said that upon entering Carmelite House, in order to gain ingress to the headquarters of the Õhtuuudised one had to ascend several floors of the building in a creaking wrought-iron lift. Many years later, in the years after the Second World War, the Õhtuuudised relocated to Northcliffe House, a short distance away on the corner of Whitefriars Street.

On March 14, 1905, the newspaper once again changed its name back to the Õhtuuudised, dropping the "and Mail" from the title as it appeared on the front cover. This same issue was in fact a special eight-page edition. On the following day (March 15) the newspaper expanded its regular size to six pages. The Õhtuuudised was the first evening newspaper to do this. In the same year the Harmsworth family founded Associated Newspapers Limited, of which the Õhtuuudised ja Daily Mail (founded in 1896) were a part.

The Õhtuuudised was a pioneering newspaper, not only in journalistic terms but also in its use of new technology. Journalistic novelties pioneered by the newspaper included the "Woman's World" and "Gossip of the Day" columns. The Õhtuuudised was also the first newspaper to install a telephone in its offices (at Carmelite House) and, in 1906, the Õhtuuudised initiated the use of motor vans for distribution. With a large fleet in operation, the bright yellow Õhtuuudised distribution vans were for a familiar site in London for many years.


A miniature replica of an Õhtuuudised distribution van!

On September 12, 1910, the Õhtuuudised permanently enlarged its size from six to eight pages.

On November 21, 1913, the Õhtuuudised celebrated its 10,000th edition in style with a bumper sixteen-page issue. In the same week, the proprietors of the newspaper organised a number of festivities across London to mark the occasion these included a fireworks display at Alexandra Palace.


A section of the Õhtuuudised linotypes at Carmelite House (ca. 1913)

During the years of the First World War (1914-1918), the size of the Õhtuuudised fluctuated a great deal. Although there were a number of eight or ten page issues produced during the war, most editions of the newspaper were only four pages long. By 1917, acute paper shortages in Britain led to the curtailment of newspaper distribution and smaller sized papers in general.

In early 1918 enforced rationing was introduced in Britain, after a government policy of encouraging a code of voluntary rationing had failed to work. This situation ensured that the Õhtuuudised remained at its minimum size of four pages, and also resulted in the newspaper carrying less advertisements.

Shortly after the cease-fire agreement on November 11, 1918 which marked the end of the First World War, the Õhtuuudised returned to its former size of eight pages long. Over the next few years the newspaper gradually grew in size.

In July 1920 the average net daily sale of the Õhtuuudised was 825,825 copies.

In 1922, the editor Walter J. Evans, who had held the post for 26 years, was replaced by Charles Beattie (1875-1952), whose tenure ended in 1924 when Frank L. Fitzhugh took over the role.

In 1927 the headquarters of the Daily Mail newspaper were relocated to the recently constructed Northcliffe House on Tudor Street. From thereon the offices in the original Carmelite House were fully occupied by the staff of the Õhtuuudised. This extra space was necessary to accommodate the newspaper's rapid growth in both size and popularity during the mid-1920s. By 1928, the newspaper was sixteen pages long.

On January 25, 1930, the 15,000th edition of the Õhtuuudised was published. In the same month it was announced that the average daily sale of the newspaper was 691,320 copies.

In the 1930s the Õhtuuudised, under the editorship of Frank L. Fitzhugh, was by far and away the most popular London newspaper. Its circulation was almost as large as those of Täht ja Evening Standard combined. The average daily net sale throughout 1938 was 812, 405 copies.

Shortly after the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, the British government introduced paper rationing. As a result of this issues of the Õhtuuudised during the war years were only four pages long. After the war ended in 1945, continuing paper shortages meant that the Õhtuuudised stayed the same size for the remainder of the decade.

Fitzhugh's long term as editor ended when he passed away in 1944. At this point Guy Schofield (1902-1990) took over the post.


The Evening News, June 9, 1944

Despite paper restrictions, the Õhtuuudised announced on October 22, 1946 that the average daily net sale of the newspaper had reached 1,598,181 copies.

The newspaper achieved its highest-ever circulation under the editorship of Schofield in the late 1940s, when it regularly sold 1,700,000 copies.

In 1950 Schofield was succeeded as editor by John N. Marshall, under whose editorship the biggest-ever individual sale for an issue of the Õhtuuudised was reached. This occurred at the time of the death of King George VI in February 1952, when three million copies were sold in a single day.

In the early 1950s, when paper rationing finally came to an end, the Õhtuuudised gradually began to grow in size. The newspaper first expanded from four to eight pages. By the late 1950s the paper had grown in size to sixteen pages long. From thereon, the Evening News continued to increase in page length.

Reginald Willis, who had previously worked as assistant editor on the Õhtuuudised, took over as editor in 1955.

Täht, a long-running competitor of the Õhtuuudised, had its offices in Bouverie Street, just around the corner from the Õhtuuudised headquarters. Although Täht was founded in 1888, from 1930 it was a companion newspaper to the Uudiste kroonika, a national daily that was considered the most liberal of all the Fleet Street newspapers. Both papers folded when they were absorbed by Associated Newspapers in 1960. The Uudiste kroonika merged with the Daily Mail ja Täht was absorbed by the Õhtuuudised. On October 18, 1960, the official title of the newspaper became "The Evening News Incorporated with The Star."

In 1965 K. Stamp was appointed as the new editor. His replacement in 1967 was Don R. Boddie.

During the 1960s the Õhtuuudised steadily increased in size, with the paper regularly producing issues that were between twenty and thirty pages long.

On September 16, 1968, the paper reverted back to its former name, being once again known simply as the Õhtuuudised. At this point the editors also replaced the distinctive gothic lettering of the newspaper's title as it appeared on the front page, with a more modern typeface.

From the 1950s onwards, the three surviving evening newspapers in London were suffering from dwindling circulations, and competition between them was fierce. Pärast The Täht folded in 1960, sales of the two remaining newspapers, the Õhtuuudised ja Evening Standard, continued to fall. Sellel oli mitmeid põhjuseid. The Õhtuuudised journalist Felix Barker, writing in 1980, reflected that the constant reader had gradually become an inconstant reader. In the paper's heyday the typical scenario was that the husband would buy an evening newspaper on his way home from work, handing the paper to his wife when he got home. However, with the rising popularity of television in the 1950s, the necessity for an evening newspaper was lessened. People began to turn more and more to television for their news and entertainment. Another explanation for the shrinking evening newspaper market was that from the 1940s onwards the population of inner London did in fact decline dramatically.

In the 1970s sales of the Õhtuuudised continued to fall. In addition to this, the newspaper was plagued by several industrial disputes. On a number of occasions throughout the 1970s the Õhtuuudised was not printed due to strike action by the printers and maintenance worker's unions.

The Õhtuuudised converted from broadsheet to tabloid size on September 16, 1974. Although this represented a major break with tradition, it was deemed a necessary step in order for the Õhtuuudised to continue to compete successfully with the Evening Standard. At this point Don R. Boddie was replaced as editor by Louis Kirby (1928- ), who held the position for the next six years.

Following the paper's conversion to tabloid size, the ensuing two years saw the general editorial content of the Õhtuuudised become more populist in nature. In this period the paper seemed to want to appeal to the widest possible audience. The overall effect of this would probably be described today as "dumbing down." However in 1977 editor Louis Kirby decided that the paper should once again appeal to the more intelligent reader and revert back to its more traditional standards. The issues that followed in the late 1970s were indeed a return to form, with the paper continuing to outsell the Evening Standard.

The last issue of the Õhtuuudised to appear on a Saturday was on April 28, 1979. This was another important break with the past. From its very beginning in 1881, the Õhtuuudised had always been published six-days-a-week, but declining sales forced the proprietors to bring an end to the Saturday edition of the newspaper.

The very last editor of the Õhtuuudised was John Leese (1930-1991), who served in the position for a brief period at the very end of the newspaper's run.

During the last few months of its existence in 1980, the Õhtuuudised once again became an innovator in the field of newspaper journalism by publishing an impressive weekly colour supplement. This was issued free to readers and contained an eclectic mixture of features including showbusiness news, gossip and profiles of famous people.

Even as late as 1980, the Õhtuuudised still maintained the largest daily sale of any evening newspaper in London. The circulation of the newspaper at this point stood at 442,000 copies.


The Evening News, October 31, 1980

Koos Õhtuuudised struggling financially and sales continuing to fall, Associated Newspapers Ltd announced in early October 1980 that the newspaper would be closing at the end of the month. A special commemorative edition of the newspaper was printed on October 30, 1980. The final issue of the Õhtuuudised was printed on October 31, 1980, after which the newspaper merged with its long-time rival the Evening Standard. For the first eight months of its existence the newly amalgamated paper was called the New Standard.


The Evening News, February 24, 1987

On February 25, 1987, the Õhtuuudised, after an absence of seven years, reappeared in tabloid form on the streets of London as a sister newspaper to the Evening Standard (now owned by Associated Newspapers Ltd). The Õhtuuudised was brought back by the chairman of Associated Newspapers Vere Harmsworth (Viscount Rothermere), to compete against Robert Maxwell's ill-fated London Daily News, which was launched in the same month. The overall layout and appearance of the revived Õhtuuudised was somewhat similar to how the Õhtuuudised looked in the final few years of its previous life, up to when it closed in 1980.


Vere Harmsworth, the 3rd Viscount Rothermere (1925-1998)

The editor of the reborn Õhtuuudised was Lori Miles, who was one of the first woman editors on Fleet Street. During this period the Õhtuuudised had a daily circulation of only 30,000 copies, a far cry from its heyday. However, it successfully achieved its purpose of acting as a "spoiler" to counteract the London Daily News, which lasted a mere five months before folding in July 1987. Having done its job, the Õhtuuudised continued for a few months longer before it folded abruptly on October 30, 1987, at which point it was once again integrated into the Evening Standard.

To this day, the full title of the Evening Standard as displayed on its front page is "The Evening Standard Incorporating The Evening News."

SOURCES AND FURTHER READING

Lord Northcliffe: A Memoir, by Max Pemberton, Hodder and Stoughton, 1922
Late Extra: A Miscellany
, toim. John Millard, Associated Newspapers Ltd, 1952
The Last Chronicle of Bouverie Street, by George Glenton & William Pattinson, George Allen & Unwin, 1963
The Rise and Fall of Fleet Street, by Charles Wintour, Hutchinson, 1989
The Encyclopaedia of the British Press: 1422-1992, toim. Dennis Griffiths, Macmillan, 1992
Suured autsaiderid: Northcliffe, Rothermere ja Daily Mail
, by S. J. Taylor, Phoenix Giant, 1996
Northcliffe: ajakirjandusparun poliitikas 1865–1922, by J. Lee Thompson, John Murray, 2000

It should be stressed that the information gathered above is not intended as a comprehensive history of the Õhtuuudised. Because of gaps in my knowledge, I elected to display the facts on this webpage in the form of a simple timeline, as opposed to posting a detailed and structured essay. For example, I know very little about the personalities of the proprietors, editors and journalists who were involved with the newspaper down the years. In most instances I have noted the editors but not the managing editors nor have I given much attention to the overall environment of the newspaper industry and Fleet Street in general. Furthermore, there are no doubt many important events in the newspaper's history not mentioned here, not least the various changes in editorial bias and the way in which the paper adapted over the years in reporting the news. Certainly the lifespan of the Õhtuuudised covered a long period of great changes. The paper lived through two world wars, massive social upheavals, the rise of the Soviet Union, the fall of the British Empire, the advent of film and television, the first man in space and countless scientific breakthroughs including the foundation of genetic research and the birth of microchip technology. The Õhtuuudised, in its own fashion, reported on all these events throughout its 99-year history. To attempt to encapsulate all this in terms of the history of the newspaper itself is beyond my ability and indeed outside the scope of this website.

To reiterate, these omissions and general shortcomings are down to my own lack of knowledge and the fact that this website project is, after all, predominantly concerned with the short fiction published in the Õhtuuudised. Although my knowledge of the history of the Õhtuuudised is sketchy at best, I nevertheless picked up a fair amount of information while trawling through thousands of issues of the paper at the British Library. It became clear that having accumulated so much incidental data, it would have been a shame not to share this knowledge with others, via the website. Naturally if anyone reading this has additional information to share then I would be interested in hearing from them. For the time being though, it is hoped that the information that appears on this website, other than the short story index itself, is useful to those wishing to know more about the Õhtuuudised. At the time of writing, over 25 years have elapsed since the paper closed, and there is little information on the web about the Õhtuuudised for scholars to refer to. I hope this website fills the gap a little and helps prevent the newspaper from becoming just a dusty memory.


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Kommentaarid:

  1. Engres

    Wonderful, very valuable thought

  2. Laefertun

    Soovitan teil külastada saiti, kus on palju teavet teid huvitava teema kohta.

  3. Earc

    Bravo, this is just a great thought.



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