Huvitav

Sulis Minerva

Sulis Minerva


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Milline oli Rooma vanni usuline tähendus?

See artikkel on redigeeritud ärakiri raamatust The Roman Baths koos Stephen Clewsiga Dan Snow’s History Hitist, esimene saade 19. juunil 2017. Saate täielikku episoodi kuulata allpool või täielikku taskuhäälingusaadet tasuta saidil Acast.

Euroopas on palju kuumaveeallikaid. See on muidugi ainus Suurbritannias. Ja nii, neid esineb mujal. Muidugi, seal, kus neid esineb, pole see ainult kuum ja tasuta, vaid ka midagi, millele roomlastel polnud õiget loomulikku seletust.

Miks tuleb soe vesi maapinnast välja? Miks peaks? Nad ei olnud vastuses päris kindlad, nii et see pidi olema jumalate töö. Ja nii, kui leiate need kuumaveeallikate kohad, leiate ka, et arenevad sellised asjad nagu templid ja jumalateenistused.

Allikad on jumaluste järelevalve all ja nii tulevad inimesed sinna, nendesse pühadesse paikadesse, otsides mõnikord jumalikku sekkumist, et aidata neil tekkida võivat probleemi. Kui nad on haiged, võivad nad otsida ravi.


Aquae Sulis: Rooma sünkretiseerimise epiteem keltidega

Rooma vannisüsteem oli iidse maailma üks keerulisemaid ja keerulisemaid. Rooma vannid, mis koosnesid erinevatest ruumidest vaimse ja füüsilise puhastuse jaoks, olid rohkem kui hügieeniallikad, vaid ka olulised kultuuriallikad. Aquae Sulisest sai üks Suurbritannia suurimaid ja tuntumaid Rooma vanne ning seda peetakse tänapäeval keldi hõimude Rooma sünkreerimise tipphetkeks ja Rooma vannisüsteemi esiletõstmiseks väljaspool Rooma linna.

Aquae Sulis, mis asub tänapäevases Bathi linnas Somersetis, Inglismaal, tõusis üheks suurimaks ja ihaldatumaks Rooma vanniks väljaspool Itaalia poolsaart. Püha jumalanna Sulile või Sulisele pühendatud Aquae Sulis esindab nii Rooma religiooni kui kultuuri segunemist keltide religiooni ja kultuuriga. Sel said Sulis, vee, tervenemise ja viljakuse jumalanna, sulandunud Minerva, Rooma tarkusejumalanna, lahingustrateegia ja mõnel juhul ka tervisega. Enne Minerva saabumist austasid keldid siiski Sulis Aquae Sulis kohas, sest selle kuumaveeallikad pakkusid looduslikke noorendavaid omadusi, mis veensid paljusid keltasid, et see on jumalannaga otseselt seotud koht.

Jumalanna Minerva kuju vanalinnas, Heidelberg, Saksamaa. Allikas: BigStockPhoto

Kuumaveeallika kasutamine näib olevat alanud umbes 10 000 aastat tagasi, vastavalt sellele, kui vähe arheoloogilisi andmeid on säilinud pärast piirkonna romaniseerimist. Tundus, et keldid saabusid umbes 700 eKr ja uskusid, et allikas on üks paljudest teedest teispoolsusesse - seda eeldati seetõttu, et selle soojuse jaoks polnud tajutavat allikat. Nad hakkasid varsti pärast seda püstitama pühamu oma jumalusele Sulisele, pidades seda kohaks, kus nad said jumalanna endaga otse rääkida ja suhelda. Pole täpselt teada, kuidas keldid seda piirkonda kasutasid, kuna nende kirjalike dokumentide puudumine takistab nende tervendamistavade eripära täielikku mõistmist, kuid on arheoloogilisi tõendeid selle kohta, et polnud harvad juhused, kui need jumalannale siin needuse taotlusi esitada hästi. Aastaks 43 eKr aga keldi kevade eesmärk vananes, kuna roomlased tundsid selle piirkonna vastu huvi ja alustasid ettevalmistusi selle vallutamiseks sünkroniseerimisprotsessiks.

Inglismaalt Bathist leiti Rooma needustahvel. Krediit: Rooma vannid

Kui roomlased tänapäeva Bathi jõudsid, nägid nad kuumaveeallikat viisina keldi rahva keisririigi kultuuri kaasata. Kuna see oli juba populaarne koht, mida keldid usuliselt armastasid, oli piisavalt võimalusi muuta see Rooma kultuurile sobivaks kohaks. Selliste kohalike traditsioonide kohandamine impeeriumi edendamiseks oli kaval taktika, mida roomlased kasutasid kõikjal, kus nad vallutada üritasid. Kuumaveeallika muutmine korralikuks Rooma saunakompleksiks andis roomlastele võimaluse võtta üle äärmiselt oluline keldi asukoht, ilma et see oleks täielikult hävitatud ja põhjustanud kohalike ülestõusu. Kõige olulisem aspekt, mis tuli esmalt parandada, oli aga saidi pühendumine keldi sulidele. Nende meetod, kuidas sellest mööda pääseda, tutvustades keldidele ka nende endi religioosset panteoni, valisid roomlased Sulisse sulandumiseks ühe oma jumalanna. Ja nii sündis jumalanna Sulis Minerva.

Huvitav on see, et Sulis on üks väheseid keldi naisjumalannasid, kes on täielikult sünkroniseeritud Rooma jumalannaga. Üldiselt toimub sünkretsiooniprotsess Celticuga mees jumalad, nagu juhtus Lenus Marsiga, kus naised ületasid enamasti vaid Rooma jumala naise. Lenus oli keldi panteonis tervendamise jumal. Ta liideti Marsiga hoolimata asjaolust, et Rooma jumalat peeti sõjajumalaks. Gallo-Rooma usus sai Lenus Marsist nakatunud haavade tervendaja, kes võitleb pigem haiguse kui sõjaga.

Sulis on sellest reeglist erand, mida näitab kõige selgemalt Sulis Minerva kuju kindel pronksist pea, mis jäi talle supluskompleksi püstitatud templist. Kuna keldid ei kujutanud oma jumalaid ega jumalannasid inimkujul, andsid roomlased Sulisele Minervaga sama näo, segades nende atribuudid nii, et üks samastati teisega Aquae Sulis. Sulis sai ka keltide tarkusejumalanna, kes võttis omaks ühe Minerva esmase kuuluvuse, just nagu kevad ise tuli Rooma ideaale oma laialdase tervendava olemuse tõttu omaks võtma.

Kullatud pronksist pea Sulis Minerva kultuskujust. Leiti Bathis Stall Streetil 1727. aastal. Wikimedia Commons )

Võttes juba pakutava, laiendasid roomlased kuumaveeallikat täielikult toimivaks vannitoaks. Selle sees oli aatriumi järgne basseinide süsteem, riietus- ja treeningruum, mida igaüks nimetas frigidarium, tepidariumja caldarium. Nagu nende nimed viitavad, frigdarium oli külma veega bassein tepidarium soe ja caldarium kuum. Läbides iga supluskoha selles kindlas järjekorras, sai supleja täieliku ja põhjaliku puhastuse, rahustades nii keha kui vaimu. Pärast viimast tuba oli tavaks, et puhkamiseks oli bassein või a palaestra edasiseks harjutamiseks ja sellises suures kohas nagu Aquae Sulis õnnestus see ellu viia. Seega mitte ainult roomlased ei omastanud kevadet, vaid suutsid selle otstarvet laiendada, venitades selle tervendamisruumi palju kaugemale, kui keldid varem olid teinud, ning integreerides sellega keldid Rooma kultuuri.

Aquae Sulis Bathis, Inglismaal. Allikas: BigStockPhoto

Ainult üks paljudest viisidest, kuidas roomlased assisteerisid keldid oma ühiskonda, on Aquae Sulis selle ühinemise kõige valusam monument. Kombineerides nii keldi tervendamiskoha kui Rooma füüsilise ja vaimse puhastuse standardi, suutsid roomlased saavutada ideaalide ja jumalate suhteliselt sujuva integratsiooni. Kultuuri täieliku kaotuse asemel jätkas keldi jumalanna Sulis selles kogukonnas õitsengut, säilitades põliselanike religiooni ja takistades keldid täielikult roomlaste poolt ületamast.

Esiletõstetud pilt: Aquae Sulis Bathis, Inglismaal. Allikas: BigStockPhoto

Bibliograafia

Blagg, T.F.C., "Sulis Minerva templi kuupäev Bathis" Britannia, 10,1, (1979), lk 101-107.

Cunliffe, Barry, "Sulis Minerva tempel Bathis" Arheoloogia, 36.6., (November/detsember, 1983), lk 16–23.

Dark K.R., "Linn või" Temenos "?" Aquae Sulis "müüriga ümbritsetud ala uuesti tõlgendamine," Britannia, 24,1, (1993), lk 254-255.

Geoffrey Monmouthist, Suurbritannia kuningate ajalugu II raamat: 10-11 . trans. Michael A. Faletra (Broadview Press: Kanada, 2007.)

"Sisseränne ja väljaränne: Roman Bathi keldi omandamine." BBC pärandid. Kasutatud 3. jaanuaril 2014. http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/immig_emig/england/somerset/article_1.shtml.

"Minerva" BMJ: Briti meditsiiniajakiri , 315,7115, (oktoober 1997), lk 1104.

Revell, Louise, "Religioon ja rituaal Lääne provintsides" Kreeka ja Rooma , 54,2 (oktoober 2007), lk 210-228.


Sulis on ilmselt üks kuulsamaid keldi jumalannasid, kuigi tal on ainult üks kultuspaik, Edela-Inglismaal asuval termilisel allikal. 1 Sait, mida roomlased tundsid kui Aquae Sulis, ei olnud mitte ainult spaa, vaid ka tempel Sulis Minerva 2-le, tema rooma-keldi kujule.

Veed olid tegelikult kuumaveeallikas, mis purskas punast ja rauarikast vett. Nende ravivõime tõi kaasa palverändurid, kes jätsid ära esemeid, suure koguse münte ja muid pakkumisi. (Võite ikkagi minna kraanituppa ja võtta klaasi vett. Ma arvasin, et see tundub väike klaas, kuni proovisin seda – seda ’ väga mineraalselt, ja seda oli raske lõpetada.)

Sulis ’ nimi on seotud päikese ja silma sõnadega, kuigi ta on intrigeeriv päikesejumalanna, kuna ta avaldab nii päikese tervendavat energiat kui ka tumedamat allilma aspekti.

Sulis ja roomlased

Kuigi võis tunduda, nagu oleksid roomlased Bathi ja selle jumalanna täielikult üle võtnud, näitab kiire pilk Rooma kirjadele Suurbritannia kuus Sulis ja kaks Sulis Minervale pühendatud altarit. (Üks neist on mõeldud Sulis Minervale ja kahe keisri jumalustele ning selle asutas oma leegioni nimel üks sajandik.)

Me teame, et enne roomlaste saabumist oli allikal tegevust ja kohalikud olid loonud allikast põhja pool kruusavööndi ning jätsid sinna mündid. (Reynolds/Volk: 379) Kolm kuumaveeallikat, mis purunevad üksteisest 50 m raadiuses, on Suurbritannias ainsad, lisades oma atraktiivsust. (Nad asuvad ka Avoni jõe käänakul, mis oli oluline kaubanduskoht.)

Sulis Minerva juht, autor Hchc2009. Wikimedia.

Ainus pilt Sulisest pärineb Rooma ajastust ja on Rooma stiilis, sarnane Minerva kujudega. Tema kullatud pronksist pea on pisut suurem kui elusuurus. Kuju, millele see kuulus, seisis tõenäoliselt templis ja võis seal olla alates asutamisest esimesel sajandil pKr.

Teine objekt, mis on sajandeid üle elanud, on Gorgon ’s pea, mis kaunistas templi fronti, rooma-keldi hübriid, mis muudab naissoost koletise habemega isaseks, pöörlevate juustega madude asemel. Kuna Minerva (ja tema Kreeka kolleeg Athena) kandis Gorgonit rinnal, tundub sobiv, et see istus tema templi ukse kohal.

Gorgon ’s pea. Pilt merineitsi, Flickrist.

Miks just Minerva?

Sulis pole ainus jumalanna, keda Minervaga samastati. Lõuna -Prantsusmaal asuvat Belisamat kutsuti pealdise järgi ka Belisama Minervaks, kuigi tal oli oma õitsev kultus, sealhulgas tempel. Sellele profiilile sobivaid kohalikke jumalannasid võib olla palju rohkem, nagu Julius Caesar ütleb meile, et keldid kummardasid Minervat.

Suurbritannias oli Yorkshire'i jumalanna Brigantia kujutatud väga Minerva-laadsel moel, kuigi teda ei sünkroonitud temaga kunagi pealdisega. Sama kehtib ka äsja avastatud jumalanna Senuna kohta, kelle pilte saaks Minervase jaoks hõlpsasti teha, kui te seda ei teaks. (Ashwellil Hertfordshire'is, kust talle leiti pakkumisi, on mitmeid mageveeallikaid ja selle nimi kajastab seda.)

Brigantia ja iiri jumalanna Brigit olid mõlemad seotud tervendavate allikatega, aga ka prantsuse jumalanna Bricta või Brixta. Viimane on eriti huvitav, sest tal olid ka kevadel “ needustahvlid ” – soovib, et jumalus teeks haiget kellelegi, kes on petitsiooni esitajale valesti teinud. Tema pühamu kuum allikas koos rauarikka veega viitab ka ühendusele Sulisega.

Ma arvan, et Sulis ja Bricta, samuti Belisama, keda peetakse tervendava vee jumala Belenose nimetuks kaaslaseks, olid kõik tervendamise, ilmselt soojendava vee jumalannad. Võib juhtuda, et Minerva element pärineb kuumusest, kuna nii Coventinat kui ka Brigantiat kutsuti oma allikates Nymphiks.

Deo Mercurio sait esitab huvitava argumendi: Minerva võitleks sõdalasena petitsioonide esitajate nimel haiguste vastu. Kui lugeda Belisamat kui “ Kõige võimsamat ”, mitte “Heledaimat ”, sobiks ta ka siia. (Nagu ka Bathis leitud altar Nemetonale ja tema abikaasale Mars Loucetiusele. See võib siiski olla juhuslik.)

Päikese silm

Sulis ’ nime võib leida ühest kahest juurest: kas “sun ” protoindoeuroopa juurest, *noh2lio- või muidu vanad iirlased súil, silm, rekonstrueeritud päikesesõnast, *sulis. Lisaks vana kõmri sõna licat tähendab nii silma kui ka kevadet. (Mann/Koch: 1636)

Silma/päikese pildid tunduvad üsna selged, Sulis on päikesejumalanna, kes on seotud taeva kõikvõimaliku silmaga. (Prantsuse teadlane Delmarre tuletab nime keldi keelest suli, (hea) nägemine.) Lisaks sobiks tema vee soojus ja tuline värvus jumalannaga, kelle enda soojus, mis kanti vette, andis sellele tervendava kvaliteedi.

Silmad ja vesi ühendavad loo püha Brigitist, kelle folkloor on päikeselise varjundiga tähelepanuväärne. Selles kiskus ta silma välja, et heidutada püsivat kosjat, ja lõi siis oma saua vastu maad, põhjustades vedru. Ta pesi tühja pistikupesa veega ja ta silm sai terveks.

Deo Mercurio märgib, et see sümboolika ühendab Sulis keldi Apollo jumalatega, kes ühendavad silmad, tervendamise ja vee. (Belenos ja Vindonnus on kaks sellist tüüpi jumalaid.) Tundub, et roomlased on selle teadmiseks võtnud, sest nad panid Suli ja Luna kujutised Sulis'i templi põhja- ja lõunaküljele ning altari Dianale, seostades teda seega omaenda taevaste jumalustega.

Päikese tume pool

Mõned Sulise ja#8217 kultuse aspektid ei olnud siiski nii taevalikud. Tema kummardajad palusid tal regulaarselt kahjustada inimesi, kes olid neid kahjustanud, mõnikord väga üksikasjalikult, ja kuumaveeallikad on mõned pannud teda nägema allilma aspekti, nagu Arinna päikesejumalanna. See aspekt, mida tuntakse maa päikesejumalannana, kujutas jumalannat, kui ta rändas pimeduse ajal läbi allilma. Ta toimetas surnud allilma, teda kutsuti surnute rituaalideks ja talle annetati maa peale.

McCrickard arvab, et keldid kujutasid ette, et Sulis allilmas laeb vett tegelikult oma päikeseenergiaga, ning pakub tõendeid teiste folkloorirituaalide kohta, mis hõlmavad mäekristalliga vett “laadimist ja#8221 sama idee teise vormina. Samuti teame, et on olemas indoeuroopa müüt vees leviva tulekahjujumala “ tulekahju ja#8221 kohta, millele on ohtlik läheneda.

Bathist leitud needustahvlid näitavad jumalannale tumedamat külge, mis võib -olla on seotud päikese öise küljega. Päikesejumalad ja -jumalannad on sageli kõikehõlmavad, seega on mõistlik paluda neilt õiglust või lihtsalt kättemaksu. Arvestades, et vannimajad, nagu tänapäeval basseinid või spordisaalid, pakkusid varastele lihtsat valimist, pole üllatav, et paljud Bathi tahvelarvutid tahavad oma vara tagasi saada. (Ta polnud ka ainus jumalus, kelle poole inimesed needmise pärast pöördusid. Sarnaseid on leitud ka Nodensi, Merkuuri, Marsi ja Jupiteri pühakodadelt.)

Siia võib sobida ka Gorgon. Kui Minerva oli õigluse jumalanna, halvas Gorgon lihtsalt kõik, kes lähenesid, ja võis olla ka hoiatus neile, kes jumalannale avalduse esitasid.

Vesi kui portaal

Hrana Janto pildil Sulis on naine, kes ujub läbi vee ereda päikese poole. Varem ärritas see mind, kui ma seda lugesin, nähes Sulis pigem allilma jumalanna kui päikesejumalanna. Kuid ma tegin valekahendkoodi ja ei saanud aru, et Sulis on palju ülemise maailma jumalus.

Norra jumalanna Saga elas vee all ja teadis kõike, mis oli juhtunud aegade algusest peale. Odin külastas teda, et temalt ajalugu õppida. Kuigi allikad ei ütle meile, kuidas ta tema veealuse koju jõudis, nägid norralased teatud järvi, basseine ja teispoolsuse portaale. Neisse visatud pakkumised läksid otse teise maailma ja vähesed õnnelikud said neid kasutada maailmade vahel liikumiseks.

Võib juhtuda, et keltidel oli sarnane idee. Me teame, et ka neil oli kombeks väärtuslikke esemeid vette visata ning Sulis antud annetused, eriti needused, viitavad sellele, et vett peeti jumalanna endaga suhtlemise viisiks.

Aga Suleviae?

Viimane küsimus Sulisest: kas ta on Suleviaega seotud? Tundub, et need olid vormid Matresest, emajumalannadest, keda kummardati kogu Rooma impeeriumis. Kuigi nende nimed on sarnased, tundub, et Suleviae pärineb su– ‘ hea ”ja radikaalne leu-, ‘juhtida ’. Seega tähendaks see midagi sellist, nagu “ Need, kes hästi juhivad (või juhivad) ”.

Arvestades emade kaitsefunktsiooni, on see mõistlik ja paljud olid valmis neid juhtima, kuna neil on üle Euroopa 40-kordne kiri. Üks kiri ühendab need Minervaga, öeldes: Svleviae Edennicae Minervae votvm , või “ lubanud Suleviae Edennica ”. Pealkiri ise on killustatud ja kes või mis oli Edennica, on ebaselge.

Deo Mercurio vihjab, et nad olid nagu junoed või geniid, üksikute inimeste, perekondade või ühenduste kaitsjad, viidates ühele konkreetsele pealdisele: „meie augustikuiste keisrite, isade ja emade ning minu enda Suleviæ heaolu nimel” .

1. Saksamaal Alzeys on üks pealdis “Dea Sul ”. Pildi vaatamiseks klõpsake siin
2. Arheoloogid leidsid hauakivi, mis mälestas üht Suli ja#8217 preestrit, nimega Gaius Calpurnius Receptus.

Viited:
Mann Michelle 2005: “Sulis Minerva ” in Keldi kultuur, entsüklopeedia, toim. John T. Koch, ABC-Clio: 1635-6.
McCrickard, Janet 1990: Päikesevarjutus, Gooti pilt.
Reynolds, Joyce ja Terence Volk 1990: “Gifts, Curses, Cult and Society at Bath (ülevaade Sulis Minerva tempel Bathis kd. 2, autorid R. Tomlin, D. Walker, B. Cunliffe.) Ja#8221 Britannia 21: 379-91.


Minerva ja veejumal

Pärast artikli „Veejumal” kirjutamist avastasin end kaaluvat Rooma ja eelrooma jumalaid, mis pöörasid mu mõtlemise pea peale. Pendelrändel Internetti sirvides meenus mulle Minerva pea, mis oli välja pandud Rooma vannis Bathis. Ma lõin end jalaga, sest Stanwickis Minerva peale mõeldes ei loonud ma Minerva ja vee vahel seost. Veejumal oli seos veega ja mulle ei tulnud pähegi, et hüpokaustist leitud eraldi skulptuurid oleksid omavahel seotud. Nüüd mõtlen teisiti.

Rooma vannid Bathis

Vannis köitis mu tähelepanu esmalt mitte Minerva, vaid teine ​​suur leid, “Gorgoni pea”. See on suurepärane reljeefne skulptuur, mis oli silmapaistval väljapanekul Minervale pühendatud templi frontonil vannikompleksis. Ma naeratasin endamisi, sest ilmselgelt pole see gorgon, nägu on mees. Lugesin edasi. Gorgoni pea on "Rooma vannide kollektsiooni tuntuim objekt". See on hästi dokumenteeritud ja selle üle arutatakse Internetis üsna palju. Mulle jõudis kohale, et see pole Gorgoni pea, vaid midagi vähem klassikalist ja põhjapoolsemat.

Gorgoni pea

Nagu ma ütlesin, pole see gorgon, kuna gorgonid on naised ja see on meessoost nägu. Alguses eeldasin, et vale tõlgendamise põhjuseks on selle figuuri habe ja karvadesse põimunud maod. Gorgonil on juustes maod. Ma eeldan, et selle suhte lõid varajased antiikajad, kes avastasid pea esimest korda 18. sajandil. See on antikvaari kontekstis täiesti arusaadav tõlgendus. Tundmatu tõlgendamisel liigume selle poole, mida teame. Me täidame tühimiku oma teadmistega, instinktiga, millele on raske vastu seista.

Arheoloogidena on surve näidata saladusi lahendades ja avalikkusele oma teadmistest rääkides, et oleme ekspert. Kuid arheoloogia, eriti eelajalugu, on mitmetähenduslik. Meil on kogupildist alles vaid väike protsent tõendeid. Vana analoogia on mosaiikmõistatusest, milles on 1000 tükki, mida kaugemale ajas tagasi minna, seda vähem on teil tükke. Väljakutse on lüngad täita ja kui meil pole selleks teadmisi, pakume välja ideid, teooriaid ja lubame ebaselgust.

Kahjuks ei meeldi inimestele mitmetähenduslikkus ja nad tunnevad end sageli otsustusvõimetust alt vedatuna. Olen sageli kohanud inimesi, kes ei suuda seda taluda, kellele tuleb rääkida faktidest ja sündmustest ning mitte „noh, see võib olla nii, aga see võib olla nii”. Arheoloogi väljakutse on tasakaalustada see vajadus tegelikkusega. Kahjuks muutuvad selles tühimikus müüdid tavaliseks kohaks.

Varaste antiikide jaoks, ehkki oli hakatud mõistma Rooma-eelset paganlust, oleks ta tühimiku täitnud klassikalise haridusega. Tegelikult sarnaneb Gorgoni pea Dusacletianuse vannide mosaiikpõrandal (1.-2. Sajand pKr, Rooma rahvusmuuseum) üllatavalt Medusa peaga. Peale näo on see peaaegu sama.

Kunagi nimega “Gorgoni pea” kleepus see nimi ja nüüd on see väga palju selle ajaloost. Isegi kui nimi on täiesti vale, poleks seda lihtne muuta. Rooma vannide veebisait käsitleb seda ja juhib tähelepanu: "Gorgonid on naised, mitte mehed."

Alguses arvasin, et see Gorgoni pea on veejumal, ja see vihjab isegi Rooma vannide veebisaidile. Juuksed voolavad näost välja ja need asusid otse Bathi kuulsate vete kohal. Maod või võib -olla veemaod on üsna mehelikud, kandiliste ägedate lõualuudega.

Kahjuks ei vasta see näitaja veejumala kirjeldusele. Figuuride pea kohal on taustal tiivad, täpselt nagu Medusa peas. Tiivad on seotud lennuga ja Gorgoni kuju on üsna ümmargune, nagu päike. Ma ootaksin, et veejumal oleks pikem, lineaarsem, kujutades vee voolu, näiteks jõgi. Kas Gorgon võiks tegelikult olla päikesejumal?

Sulis Minerva

See Minerva pole Rooma Minerva, vaid Sulis Minerva, kes oli Minerva kohandatud vorm. Kasutatud mõiste on sünkretism, kus eelrooma jumal, st Sulis, oli „liidetud” Rooma jumalaga, see oli Minerva. Eel-Rooma jumalad olid üsna lokaliseeritud ja Sulis oli jumal, kes oli väga osa Bathi looduslikest allikatest ja vetest. Rooma-britid kummardasid teda kui Sulis Minervat, mille kohta leidub tõendeid tahvlites, mis olid vette pandud.

Minerva juht Rooma vannides, kui tsiteerida veebisaiti, on „tõenäoliselt pärit jumalanna kultuskujust, mis oleks seisnud tema templis püha allika kõrval. Sealt võis ta vaadata üle templihoovi suure altari kohale, ohverdamispaigale, mis seisis selle püha ruumi südames. "#8230" vastamisi.

Olenemata Gorgoni pea tähenduse tegelikkusest oleme kindlad, et Rooma-eelne jumal Sulis oli allikatega seotud. Oma artiklis Stanwicki veejumala kohta rõhutasin vee põhilist tähtsust igapäevaelus. Seda oli vaja juua, põllukultuuride kasvatamiseks, reisimiseks ja kaubanduseks. Samal ajal tooks liiga palju vett kaasa üleujutusi, saagi ebaõnnestumist ja nälga. Briti rauaajal ja Rooma perioodil oli vesi religioosne koht, kus inimesed ladustasid veekogudesse väärtuslikke esemeid. Nad ohverdasid inimesi ja ladestasid nad rabadesse. Kaevetatud pead asetati kaevudesse. Vesi oli püha koht ja tee teise maailma. Rooma vannis, Aquae Sulis, andsid inimesed oma taotlused Sulisele vetes.

Samamoodi oli päikest ja soojust vaja põllukultuuride edukaks kasvamiseks. Toitu ei olnud vaja mitte ainult eluks, vaid toidu kontrollimine oli jõud ja rauaaja küngastel on selle kontrolli kohta tõendeid. Kui päikest oleks liiga palju ja vihma ei satuks, tooks põud kaasa ka vilja ebaõnnestumise, näljahäda ja potentsiaalse jõu kadumise. Tasakaalus on vesi ja päike kogu elu. Vee ja päikesejumaluste vahel peab olema suhe. Meil on palju tõendeid veejumalate kummardamise kohta, sest vesi säilitab orgaanilise aine. Tõendid päikese kummardamise kohta on aga kadunud 2000 aasta pärast. Ma ei ootaks, et selliseid tõendeid nii hästi säilitatakse. Võib -olla oli Gorgoni pea, mis oli kogu templi sisehoovis Minerva poole, päikesejumal, sünkretism Medusaga.

Senuna

Teine sünkretism Minervaga ja seos veega leiti Ashwelli külas, mis asub Stanwickist vaid umbes 30 miili kaugusel. 2002. aastal leidis metallidetektor üle 20 Senunale pühendatud pakkumise. Inimesed andsid need hoiule, paludes Senuna poolehoidu saidil, mis oli enam kui tõenäoliselt religioosne. Nende pakkumiste kujutised näitavad tõendeid sünkretismist eelrooma jumalanna ja Minerva vahel. Jällegi oli Senuna, nagu Sulis, tõenäoliselt selles piirkonnas lokaliseeritud. Külast kagusse jääb rauaaegne linnamägi, seega on piirkonnas tugevad sidemed eelrooma elanikkonnaga. Senuna võib jätkuda rauaajale.

Aarde paljastati Ashwellis. 26 kuldset ja hõbedast Rooma eset, sealhulgas kuldehteid üheksateistkümnest tahvlist ja kahest hõbedast mudelist.

Külal endal on tugevad ühendused veega, ilmselge vihje on nimes Ashwell. See on Cami jõe mitmeaastane allikas ja piirkonnas on arvukalt allikaid. Mõni aasta pärast leidude avastamist toimusid selle piirkonna väljakaevamised. Sait oli üks veeallikatest, "... ja selle keskmes oli tseremoniaalne õõnes, mis näib olevat pärit allikast." (Jackson ja Burleigh).

Arheoloogilises aruandes järeldavad Ralph Jackson ja Gilbert Burleigh, et Senuna ja Minerva vahel on sarnasusi, isegi kui puuduvad otsesed tõendid „… kahe jumaluse ametliku segiajamise” kohta. Aga ka,

„… Senuna pühendatud kujukesel on sarnasusi ka jumalanna Fortuna kujutistega. Nii vesi kui ka viljakus olid ehk Senuna kultuses kesksel kohal. ”

Stanwick ja Ashwell Minervas

Nende Senuna ja Stanwick Minerva piltide vahel on tugev sarnasus. Ashwelli tahvlid on varieeruvad, kuid sisuliselt näitavad need Minerva klassikalisi pilte, oda, kilbi ja öökulliga. Stanwicki reljeefne skulptuur näitab kujutise fragmenti, Minerva on vasakule suunatud, parem küünarvars on keerdunud oda ümber ja osa sambast vasakul. Olen selle kõrvale pannud võrdluseks sarnase Ashwelli pildi.

Muud Minervad

Mida rohkem ma vaatan, seda rohkem Minerva ja vee jälgi näen. Üks näide on Harlowi äärelinnas. Siin on Minervale pühendatud Rooma templi jäänused või nii arvatakse. See ei olnud kaugel väikesest Rooma asulast ja sellel mäel on järjepidevus vähemalt pronksiaega ning piirkonnas on tugevad neoliitikumi sidemed. Sait asub mäe otsas, kust avaneb vaade otse veeteedele.

Teine uuem võimalik ühendus Minerva ja veejumalaga on Inglismaa panga kirdenurgas. Soane pani oma panga kujunduses sisse templi, mis põhineb Tivoli templil. Kaunistust on vähe, välja arvatud kaks öökulli (seotud Athena ja Minervaga) ja veejumal. Inglismaa pank asub otse Walbrooki jõe kohal, mis Rooma ajal ja enne seda oli jõeorg, Ludgate'i mägi küljel ja Cornhill idas.

Veejumal Inglismaa pangas, veidi üle Walbrooki jõe. Pildi autor: Pauline den Hartog Jager.

Olen kohanud ka Franke Minerva 3 in 1 soojaveepaaki. Miks peaks Franke kutsuma kuuma vee paagi ja koputama "Minerva"?

Franke Minerva originaal 1 hoova 3-ühes kiiresti keeva veega köögisegisti kraan, kroom.

Mis meil on?

Meil on sidemed Minerva, varasema Rooma-eelse jumaluse, millest Minera oli kohandatud, vahelise suhtega vee, päikese ja isase veejumalaga. Vee tähtsust ei saa üle hinnata. Mitte ainult vee loogilised aspektid, mis säilitavad elu, vaid ka rooma-eelsest rauaajast pärinevad arheoloogilised tõendid, mis näitavad vee rituaalset tähtsust. Väga eluvajadus on vesi, kuid vajalik on ka tasakaal päikesega.

Viimase 30 aasta jooksul pärast Stanwick Minerva fragmendi väljakaevamist 1990. aasta suvel polnud ma kunagi mõelnud, et Minerva ja meie avastatud vee-Jumala vahel võib olla suhe. Kas see Minerva oli sünkretism eelmise kohaliku Rooma-eelse jumalanna jumalannaga, kes oli seotud Stanwicki rahvaga rauaajal ja pärast seda? Ma arvan nüüd nii. Enne kui ma arvasin, et seal on Minervale pühendatud tempel koos paljude teiste reljeefsete skulptuuridega, mis on seotud omaniku, perekonna ja lugudega, mida nad tahtsid rääkida. Viimase 3 kuu jooksul olen meelt täielikult muutnud. Ma usun, et nende kahe esindaja vahel oli otsene seos ja suhe päikesega.

Millist jumalat me vaatame? Religioonid kohanevad, tulevad uued religioonid ja võtavad omaks senised kombed, kohalikud veidrused ja jumalad. Kas sel juhul vaatame Rooma jumalaid või on tegelikud eelrooma jumalad? Kas on õige kasutada terminit Minerva? Kasutades seda terminit, võime me end valesti teavitada ja juhtida end valedel radadel, nagu 18. sajandi antiikajad Gorgani peaga tegid.

Võib -olla on veega seotud rohkem Minervasid, millest me ei tea. Punktidega peame veel liituma. Olen veendunud, et „kus suitsu, seal tuld”. Mõelge sellele mosaiigile. Teil on osa pildist ja olete päris kindel, mis see saab olema, teil lihtsalt pole tükke. Selline teooria võib aja jooksul pea peale pöörata. See on ebaselguse ilu. Saame kohaneda, muuta oma vaatenurka ja lugusid, kui ilmneb rohkem tõendeid.

Viited

Publikatsioonid

Ashwell Senuna: Aare, kultus ja rituaal Ashwellis, Hertfordshire'is. Jackson, Ralph ja Burleigh, Gilbert. 2018. Briti muuseum.

FRANKE MINERVA 3-IN-1 KUUM VEE KRAAN: KÜTTEPAAKI PAIGALDUSJUHEND,

The Hoard from Ashwell – by Portable Antiquities Scheme from London, England – Baldock Hoard Üles laadinud Victuallers, CC BY 2.0. Foto autor Dominic Coyne, programm Noored lõpetajad muuseumide ja galeriide jaoks augustis 2007. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10720091

Üks teine ​​asi

Ashwellis avastatud tahvlite avastamisel soovis USA paganlaste rühm Senunaga ühendust võtta:

“We began by studying the available articles about Senua, and photographs of her artifacts. We also studied (to the best of our ability, from 3,000 miles away) the landscape in which she was found, and what is known of the land’s use and inhabitants during the Celto-Roman period.


Plate 1.34: Bronze Head of Sulis Minerva Found at Bath

1 2018-08-28T17:16:50+00:00 Crystal B. Lake b7829cc6981c2837dafd356811d9393ab4d81adc 31 47 Scholarly Commentary with DZI View for Vetusta Monumenta, Plate 1.34. Commentary by Elizabeth J. Hornbeck. plain 2021-04-23T14:55:28+00:00 Ariel Fried f6b6cec26c5a46c3beae9e3505bac9e8799f51de Plate: Plate 1.34 shows in profile a gilded bronze head that was discovered in Bath (Aquae Sulis) in 1727. The date of 1730 appears in the lower right corner below the name of the engraver, George Vertue (1684-1756). In the lower left corner is the name of the delineator, A. Gordon (probably Alexander Gordon (c. 1692-1754), who became Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1735). The engraved caption indicates that the object was buried for sixteen centuries, implying a Roman provenance but this inscription does not suggest the identity or even the gender of the figure represented. The plate shows that the head was crudely broken off at the neck it also shows two of the rivet holes along the top of the head, which would have been used to attach a tall Corinthian helmet (now missing). Apart from the inscription, there is no visual indication of the material it appears as much like stone as like bronze.

Object: The gilded bronze Head of Sulis Minerva, unearthed in 1727 during the construction of a new sewer below Stall Street in Bath, most likely dates from the late first century and belonged to the cult statue of the goddess in the Roman temple that stood next to the sacred spring. After its discovery it was displayed in the town hall, and it has never left Bath. Today the head is displayed at the Bath Museum. It is approximately life size, and has six layers of gilding, according to the Roman Baths Museum.

Identification of the sculpture is based on context: it was found at the site of the Temple of Sulis Minerva, and probably belonged to the cult statue that was worshipped there. The earliest textual reference to this temple and its patron deity is by the third-century Latin author Solinus. The Temple of Sulis Minerva was built soon after the Roman Empire successfully subdued Britain (Provincia Britannia) during the first century. Even before the arrival of the Romans, the thermal springs found here were considered to be sacred and to have healing powers. The Iron Age ancient Britons (Celts) worshipped the deity Sulis here, and the Romans subsequently equated Sulis with Minerva, the goddess of wisdom and of healing. Thus Sulis Minerva is a syncretic deity who could be worshipped by both the native populace and the Roman colonists at the site which the Romans called Aquae Sulis. In addition to this temple, the Romans constructed bathing facilities fed by the thermal springs. The central bathing establishment at Aquae Sulis was constructed in the late first century and continued in use into the fifth century. The temple and associated structures were destroyed &ldquoarguably around AD 450 and certainly before AD 500&rdquo (Gerrard 2007, 160).

Transcription: CAPUT hoc, ex ӕre inauratum, antiquo opere summoque artificio conflatum, Urbis inter rudera multis jam seculis excisӕ sepultum, AQVIS SOLIS in agro Somersetensi XVI tandem sub solo ped. effossum A.D. [M]DCC XXVII. Ӕternitati consecravit Soc. Antiquar. Londinensis.

Translation: This gilded bronze head, a product of ancient workmanship and the highest craftsmanship, buried among the ruins of a city demolished many centuries ago now, Aquae Sulis in Somerset, eventually excavated 16 ft. underground in 1727. The Society of Antiquaries, London preserved it for posterity.

Commentary by Elizabeth J. Hornbeck: This impressive gilded bronze head created great excitement among antiquaries when it was unearthed on 12 July 1727 during the construction of a new sewer below Stall Street in Bath. Antiquarian interest in Bath reflected the long-standing awareness of Bath as a Roman settlement, despite Geoffrey of Monmouth having created for it, in the twelfth century, a mythical British founder called King Bladud. Aquae Sulis was mentioned both in Solinus&rsquos Collectanea rerum memorabilium and in the Antonine Itinerary, a Roman catalogue of roads and towns. In his third-century Collectanea, Solinus mentions a hot springs in Britain presided over by Minerva, &ldquoin whose temple burns a perpetual fire&rdquo (Cunliffe 1966, 199).

In the twelfth century, Geoffrey of Monmouth firmly believed that Solinus was writing about Bath, as do modern scholars (Cunliffe 1969, 7). His claim that the Temple of Minerva lay under the Norman cathedral was perpetuated in the writings of later antiquarian travelers William Camden (1551-1623), Dr. Thomas Guidott (1638-1706), and William Stukeley (1687-1765) (Cunliffe 1984, 8). The actual position of the temple&mdashclose to the find spot of the gilded bronze head&mdashwas not determined until archaeological excavations undertaken in 1790, which were confirmed a century later during further excavation and rebuilding work in 1867-69 (Cunliffe 1969, 8).

Bath was known to have had a rich Roman history, owing not only to Solinus but also to extensive inscriptions and carvings that were included in the medieval city wall (possibly begun in the Roman period) (Cunliffe 1969, 5) these had been documented by antiquarian visitors like John Leland (c. 1503-1552), who visited Bath between 1536 and 1542 Samuel Gale (1682-1754), who visited Bath in 1705 and Stukeley, who visited the city in 1723. The miniature painter Bernard Lens, who happened to be in Bath at the time (20 August 1727), drew the remains of a Roman hypocaust that had been uncovered by the builders in Stall Street and then (on 23 August) made a colored drawing of this head, originally found nearby, which by then was installed in the town hall (SAL Harley Collection, vol. 2, fol. 12 Green 1890). Lens identified the head as that of Pallas Athena, and thus female. In 1728, Gale sent a drawing of the bust to Sir John Clerk (1676-1755), who replied that the head was male and speculated that it represented &ldquoa court favorite or officer among the Romans in Britain for heads, bustos, and statues, were so common, that every family possessed some hundreds of them both in metal and stone&rdquo (Nichols 1781, 146). Clerk&rsquos Romantic belief in the abundance of such statues has not, however, been borne out by subsequent finds.

Stukeley, the first secretary of the SAL, had visited Bath in 1723, four years before the head was discovered. In Stukeley&rsquos Itinerarium Curiosum he describes his visit and, following Geoffrey of Monmouth, mistakenly asserts that the Roman temple of Minerva, &ldquopatroness of the Baths,&rdquo once stood where the medieval cathedral currently stands (Stukeley 1776, 146). It was not until excavations in 1790 that the temple&rsquos actual location was confirmed to be adjacent to the find spot of the bronze head. Stukeley included a footnote about the head in the second edition of Itinerarium Curiosum (published posthumously in 1776). Probably referring to a paper of Gale&rsquos that remains untraced, Stukeley writes:

A most noble busto in brass found at the bath, anno 1727. Mr. Gale says it is not easy to know whether it be a man&rsquos or a woman&rsquos: I suppose it is the Genius of the city, buried there for luck sake. Such another found in the middle of Paris, very deep, with a mural crown on and such a one had ours, the holes being visible where it was fastened. (Stukeley 1776, 146)

Although Stukeley was aware that a Roman temple of Minerva, &ldquopatroness of the Baths,&rdquo had stood in the city, he did not connect the gilt bronze head with Minerva. Stukeley&rsquos note on the head suggests that Gale&rsquos identification of the head as Minerva was still unsettled when he read his paper for the SAL. Stukeley believed the missing headgear to have been a mural crown, i.e., a crown representing the walls or towers of a city these were common in ancient representations of patron goddesses of cities. It is worth noting that deities who protected cities in antiquity were typically female, so Stukeley must have, on some level, believed the head to be that of a woman. Stukeley&rsquos supposition that the head had been deliberately buried to bring luck, rather than having been created for religious worship, reflects the fact that archaeological excavation and interpretation were still quite new in Britain in 1727.

Recognizing the significance of the find&mdashwhich remains one of only three works in bronze recovered from Roman Britain&mdashthe Society of Antiquaries of London (SAL) sought to document it almost immediately. The SAL voted to order the engraving on three separate occasions, over a period of more than two years, before Vertue finally executed the order. The first vote was taken on 8 November 1727, when the Society ordered &ldquoa Profile and full face of the Head dug up lately at Bath.&rdquo Two weeks later, on 22 November 1727, &ldquoThe president brought several draughts of the Head lately found at Bath&rdquo (SAL Minutes I.215). Seven preparatory drawings of the head survive in the Society&rsquos archives (SAL Drawings, kd. 1, fols. 84, 88). Three are drawn in red chalk one of these shows the left side of the head in profile, and the other two show frontal views of the face. The other four drawings are done in charcoal they show the left side in profile, the right side in profile, a three-quarter view of the right side, and a frontal view of the face. None of these drawings includes a signature, and they could be the work of one or two artists, one of whom, A. Gordon, is credited in Plate 1.34. Vertue&rsquos engraving could be based on either of the two left profiles, but the engraving shows two rivet holes along the top edge of the head, while none of the seven preparatory drawings shows the holes.

Vertue began work on the engraving soon after it was balloted and ordered for the third time on 19 February 1730 (SAL Minutes I.244) and distributed copies of the finished print to members on 26 November 1730 (I.252). He may have worked partly from a cast of the head, since the order calls for the use of &ldquoSuch Drawing or Caste as the Lord Colerane, Mr R Gale, & Mr Vertue shall approve of&rdquo (I.244). Rather than the two engravings approved in 1727, only one&mdashthe profile&mdashwas ultimately executed.

Stylistically, the Head of Sulis Minerva appears typical of Greco-Roman sculpture of the first century. The face and hair are highly stylized, with symmetrical features the face lacks expression or emotion. Cunliffe describes the face as &ldquodull but competently modelled&rdquo (1969, 34). Altogether seemingly bland, her appearance is idealized and heroic, which is appropriate for an all-powerful, superhuman deity. A notable feature of both the drawings and the engraving is the use of &ldquosilent restoration&rdquo&mdashi.e., the head is represented as being in better condition that it actually was. The Roman Baths Museum&rsquos website describes the head&rsquos modern condition:

[T]he head has a number of imperfections. There is corrosion which has affected it in parts where it lay in the ground for over a thousand years. There is also a strange rectangular cut beneath the chin. It is thought this may result from a flaw in the original casting process in which a bubble on the surface may have been cut out and filled with an inserted plate. When gilded over it would not have been visible. This plate has subsequently fallen out as a result of corrosion whilst in the ground. (Roman Baths Museum)

None of the eighteenth-century descriptions of the head comments on the corrosion or the rectangular cut, both of which are plainly visible today. The corrosion and the rectangular hole are most noticeable on the lower right side of the face, which could account for Vertue&rsquos decision to use the left profile for the Society&rsquos project&mdashthough Vertue might not even have been aware of the corrosion, since he was probably working from the idealized drawings and not the object itself. The jagged line at the bottom, showing where the bust was broken at the neck, adds a touch of documentary realism, however.

Correspondence between antiquaries further demonstrates the high level of interest in the head. On 23 April 1729, Maurice Johnson (1688-1755) wrote to Samuel Gale:

I hope the Antiquarian Society have determined upon engraving the Bath-head of Apollo, which I cannot but imagine is part of the very image of that deity, represented upon that coin of Constantine so very frequently found in England, naked, et radiato capite, with this inscription, SOLI INVICTO COMITI. (Nichols 1781, 146)

Johnson may have seen the drawings presented at the SAL meeting on 22 November 1727. He seems to have concurred with Clerk on the matter of the statue&rsquos gender, and he seems certain about its identity being Apollo.

By 1730, when the engraving was made, there was still debate over whether the head represented a male or a female figure. When Vertue made the engraving, his inscription identified it simply as &ldquoa gilded bronze head.&rdquo Among the prominent antiquaries who weighed in on this question, Gale is the most likely to have studied the head in person, or he may have had drawings sent to him from Bath. Clerk based his view on drawings that Gale sent to him, and Stukeley also learned about the head from Gale, probably from a paper Gale read at the SAL sometime between 1727 and 1730. Clerk replied on 1 August 1728:

I return you many thanks for the draught you sent me. I take it to be the head of a man, and not of a woman, for the Nasus Quadratus, a beauty in men much commended, and followed by statuaries, especially the Grecian, is here very remarkable. The forehead is likewise too short for a female deity, where the Perfectissimum Naturae was always observed. (Nichols 1781, 146)

Clerk&rsquos evaluation of the figure&rsquos gender, based on connoisseurship, is primarily speculative little was really known about Greco-Roman aesthetics at the time.

In his &ldquoTour through Several Parts of England,&rdquo Gale identifies the head as that of Minerva, despite opinions to the contrary expressed by both Clerk and Johnson. He writes, &ldquoAnd lately, anno 1727, as the workmen were digging to lay a new drain about the middle of the town, they dug up a fine head, in cast brass, 1 and washed over with gold, of the goddess Pallas [Athena], and is now to be seen preserved by the worthy magistrates in their town-house, as a most venerable antiquity&rdquo (Nichols 1781, 19). Gale added this account in 1730 when revising his manuscript &ldquoTour&rdquo of 1705, but since the text remained unpublished until 1780, it is not clear to what extent contemporaries were aware of his opinion that it was indeed Minerva: the Roman equivalent of the Greek Athena.

Arguments that the gilded bronze head belonged to Apollo were supported by antiquarian descriptions of the many Roman inscriptions and carvings found in the city wall. Apollo figured prominently among these Roman relics. Perhaps as early as 1705 Gale asserted that the Romans &ldquoattribute[d] the heat and medicinal qualities of the baths to the Sun, or Apollo, who was esteemed and worshipped by them as the God of Physic&rdquo (Nichols 1781, 18). He went on to describe a relief in the wall:

And I have in the wall of the city observed, on the inside westwards, a conspicuous bass-relief of Apollo laureated, and a flame coming out of his mouth thereby plainly intimating the fire and genial heat with which these waters are so intensely endowed, to proceed entirely from the influences of this deity another bass-relief I have also seen here, representing the sun, irradiated, pleno vultu [full face]. (Nichols 1781, 18)

It is interesting to note that Gale himself eventually identified the head as that of Minerva, despite his own observations of Apollo&rsquos importance to Bath. Modern archaeology leaves little doubt that the head most likely belonged to the cult statue of Sulis Minerva or another statue of the goddess, as it was discovered within the temple precinct. She would have worn a tall Corinthian helmet, not a mural crown as speculated by Stukeley.

Sixty years later, in 1791, some antiquaries still identified the bronze head as belonging to Apollo. Sir Henry Charles Englefield, in his &ldquoAccount of Antiquities discovered at Bath 1790,&rdquo read on 3 March 1791, described new excavations around the Roman temple, including the now-famous Gorgon&rsquos Head pediment. He wrote: &ldquoThis probably was a temple of the Corinthian order, dedicated to the deities who presided over the springs of Bath and which an altar formerly dug up here, tells us were Apollo and Minerva. The ornaments in the pediment of the temple seem to refer to the latter divinity while the fine bronze head formerly dug up near this spot, and now preserved in the town-hall, seems evidently to have belonged to a statue of the former&rdquo (Englefield 1792, 326-27). In 1799, though, in a letter to the SAL, Englefield identified the head as &ldquoprobably&rdquo belonging to Minerva.

This 1799 letter accompanied a cast of the head, which Englefield made and gave to the SAL the cast is now missing (LDSAL 39). Englefield also commented on the state of the original in this letter: &ldquoWhen first discovered, traces of ancient gilding appeared on it and from accurate inspection I am convinced that the gold still visible on the left cheek is a part of that gilding, for though it was new gilt some years ago, it must have been merely what is called water gilt, as it is now entirely taken off, and the ancient surface of the metal does not appear to have been injured&rdquo (SAL Minutes XXVII.358-59). We have no further evidence concerning the re-gilding of the head, but it must have seemed an appropriate measure to one of the curators in charge of it during the mid-eighteenth century.

Englefield wrote this in 1791, sometime after the posthumous publication of Gale&rsquos &ldquoTour through Several Parts of England&rdquo in which Gale identified the head as belonging to Minerva. Both the discovery of the bronze head in 1727 and excavations leading to the discovery of the temple of Minerva (its altar, façade, and location) in 1790 resulted from the extensive rebuilding of the city of Bath in order to improve its infrastructure for the ever-expanding numbers of fashionable visitors to the city. By 1813, according to Sweet, &ldquoa taste for British Roman antiquities had become fashionable amongst the social elite,&rdquo with a focus on prestigious objects like the bronze head. But brick architecture was another matter. &ldquoThe baths and hypocaust sustem which were discovered. in 1755 provoked comparatively little attention from the antiquarian world: the Society of Antiquaries received reports from its member on the spot, Mr. Mundy, but no publication was forthcoming&rdquo (Sweet 2004, 184-185). An important fragment of a solid fluted shaft was found in 1879, allowing for a reconstruction of the temple&rsquos plan (Cunliffe 1969, 11). Antiquarian and archaeological interest in Bath&rsquos Roman remains continued in the twentieth century. According to Barry Cunliffe, who directed excavations in Bath from the 1960s through the 1980s, there is no doubt that Sulis Minerva was the presiding deity at this site. He says that &ldquoof the thirteen dedicatory inscriptions known, ten are to Sulis or Sulis Minerva&rdquo (1969, 4). The prevailing opinion now is that this gilded bronze head definitely belonged to a statue of Minerva, probably the main cult statue.

The significance of the find for eighteenth-century antiquaries was quite different, however, as illustrated by Vertue&rsquos print. The bust provided evidence that Greco-Roman bronze statuary&mdasha rarity even on the classic ground of the Grand Tour&mdashcould be numbered among the &ldquoBrittish Antiquitys&rdquo to which the SAL dedicated its labors. At the same time, the appearance of the bust in the print (as in the drawings) is reminiscent of marble, creating a kinship between the head and the famous marble sculptures that inspired neoclassical accounts of ancient art. The resulting speculations on Roman religion, culture, and aesthetics by Gale, Stukeley, Clerk, and others reflect both the uniqueness of the find and the forms in which it circulated through antiquarian visual culture.

[1]: &ldquoBrass&rdquo and &ldquobronze&rdquo were used interchangeably in the eighteenth century.

Works Cited:

Cunliffe, Barry. 1966. &ldquoThe Temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath.&rdquo Antiquity 40: 199-204.

------. 1969. Roman Bath. London: Society of Antiquaries.

------. 1984. Roman Bath Discovered. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

------. 2000. Roman Bath discovered. Stroud: Tempus, pp 24-6.

Englefield, Henry Charles. 1792. &ldquoAccount of Antiquities discovered at Bath 1790.&rdquo Arheoloogia 10: 325-33.

Evans, Joan. 1956. A History of the Society of Antiquaries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gerrard, James. 2007. &ldquoThe Temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath and the End of Roman Britain.&rdquo The Antiquaries Journal 87: 148-64.

Green, Everard. 1890. &ldquoThoughts on Bath as a Roman City.&rdquo Proceedings of the Bath Field Club 7, part vii: 114-126.

Henig, Martin. 1995. The Art of Roman Britain. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Mattingly, D.J. 2007. An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire, 54 BC to AD 409. London and New York: Penguin.

Nichols, John, ed. 1781. Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica. No. II. Part. I. Containing Reliquiae Galeanae or Miscellaneous Pieces by the Late Brothers Roger and Samuel Gale. London: J. Nichols.

Society of Antiquaries of London. Prints and Drawings, Drawings: Volume 1 [197h]. "Head of Minerva," fols. 84, 88.

------. Prints and Drawings, Harley Collection, Volume 2: Monuments, English Antiquities, Etc. [196h]. "Head in Brass, Found at Bath, Drawn by Lens," fol. 26.

------. 1718-. Minutes of the Society&rsquos Proceedings.

Stukeley, William. (1724) 1776. Itinerarium Curiosum. 2nd ed. 2 vols. London: Baker and Leigh.

Sweet, Rosemary. 2004. Antiquaries: The Discovery of the Past in Eighteenth-Century Britain. London: Hambledon and London.


The Weird and Wonderful Religious Practices and Beliefs of Pre-Christian Britain

Sulis Minerva. Picture Credit: Natasha Sheldon

4. Celtic and Roman deities combined rather well in Britain

The Roman conquest of Britain saw the Druids driven out and the sacred groves cut down. However, surprisingly, the Mediterranean invaders were happy to tolerate the Celtic gods. In general, the Romans had no problem with the deities of the lands they conquered- as long as they did not become a focal point for resistance. So it was Roman policy to allow their conquered people to continue worshipping as they pleased. In some cases, these native and Roman deities combine cults.

One such example of this occurred on the lands of the Dobunni tribe in southwest England, at a hot spring sacred to the Celtic water goddess Sulis. After the invasion of 43AD, the Romans quickly occupied the Dobunni tribal lands. Sulis&rsquos spring just happened to lie along the River Avon, a vital waterway and the Romans were quick to establish a fort there. The hot springs were a desirable feature to the bath loving Romans. However, they were too respectful of the sanctuary of Sulis to appropriate it and kick the goddess out.

Instead, they decided to embellish Sulis&rsquos existing native sanctuary with a magnificent new temple and bathhouse. They rededicated the new shrine to Sulis in partnership with the Roman goddess Minerva. The Roman&rsquos reconciled the locals to the addition of their own deity by claiming the two goddesses were the same. And so Sulis became Sulis Minerva and around her sanctuary grew up the town of Aquae Sulis, which today is better known as Bath.


Etymology and Mythology

The name Sulis is derived from the old Celtic word * sūlis ("sun") Sulis was sometimes, probably by mistake, adopted as the genitive or dative of Sul (e). In Old Irish , súil (fem.) Took over the meaning of "eye". In Scottish Gaelic , the name of the sun is poetically described as Sùil Dhè mhòir ("The Eye of the Great God") ( Carmina Gaedelica , III, 306). Sunday has the New Cymrian name dydd Sul from the Latin dies Solis .

Her sanctuary was a spring in the Aquae Sulis , named after her, now Bath in Somerset , England . So it was almost certain that she was also a goddess of healing and Aquae Sulis, where an extensive temple area was dedicated to her, subsequently developed into a health resort . So people hoped that a bath in their holy spring would cure their illnesses. Already in Solinus (XXII, 10) one can read:

. quibus fontibus praesul *) est Minerva numen, in cuius aede perpetui ignes numquam canescunt in favillas, sed . [ignis] vertit in globus saexos .
(The ruler of these sources is the numen of Minerva, in whose sanctuary perpetual Fire does not turn pale in ashes, but [the fire turns the ashes] into stony bulbs) *) Praesul is emended in prae est Sul .

Several inscriptions have been preserved in Bath, for example on altars, on the gravestone of a priest and on some escape signs . Another inscription was found on a consecration stone in Alzey (the name Deae Sul is handed down here).

On the mainland, other goddesses such as Suleviae were related to her, but she was also worshiped in Bath. Since in the island Celtic area Suil still means both eye and sun (see above), Sulis or Suleviae is also believed to be the original Celtic sun goddess. In this case there is a relationship to the Germanic Sol , which is etymologically related to Sulis.


More information

Roman religion
An article about Roman religion from BBC History – click through the nine images in the gallery.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/roman_religion_gallery_01.shtml

Resources for teachers
This teachers’ pack (in PDF format) contains background information about Roman Britain, including religion.
http://www.britishmuseum.org/PDF/Visit_Roman_Britain_KS2b.pdf

Early Christian mosaic
A History of the World in 100 Objects: the mosaic of Christ at Hinton St Mary, Dorset. Listen to the programme or read the transcript.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/ahistoryoftheworld/objects/VfupdXVjTM6crACGDU-6uA


Sulis Minerva

Aquae Sulis, the Roman name for Bath translates as ‘the waters of Sulis.’

Sulis Minerva was a blending of Sulis, a local Celtic goddess associated with the springs, and Minerva, the Roman goddess often identified with the Greek Athena. Roman’s often combined their deities with local ones that had similar characteristics or myths. This was done in part to merge the two religions and two communities. By seeing the incorporation and acceptance of their own local cults into the Roman’s religion rather than seeing their replacement or destruction the conquered peoples were more likely to accept their conquerors and other aspects of the new culture that came with them.

Minerva was originally an Etruscan goddess, Minvre, associated with household arts and crafts, but under the Roman republic she quickly became associated with the Greek Athena and took on many of her characteristics. Athena was a goddess of crafts and skills, but was also the goddess of wisdom, intelligence, strategy and war. She was one of the twelve Olympian gods and was born fully formed from Zeus’ head after Hephaestus treated Zeus for a headache by hitting him with an axe (do not try this at home, I promise you a fully formed goddess will not be the result). Athena’s symbolic animal was the owl, which represented wisdom. As Minerva was merged with Sulis it seems likely that Sulis shared the associated traits of wisdom, curative powers, and martial prowess.

Cult Statue Head of Sulis Minerva

The head of Sulis Minerva that is part of the collections here at the Roman Baths was once crowned with a Corinthian helmet and was probably the cult statue in a temple dedicated to Sulis Minerva. Although the head does not say the name Sulis Minerva on it anywhere we know it must be of her because of many of its characteristics including its beauty, location, the fact that it was wearing a helmet, its likeness to other known statues, and the fact that it was re-gilded six times. Gilt bronze statues like this are very rare and reflect the importance of the deity and the wealth of the temple in which she was displayed. The head displays evidence of intentional destruction. It is thought that raiders or another religious group destroyed the statue in late Roman times. The statue head was found under a nearby street, just a few metres from where it is now displayed, when a sewer trench was dug in 1727.

Did you know that the name Sulis only appears in and around Bath?
This is due to the fact that Celtic deities like Sulis were commonly place associated deities.


Vaata videot: Rome Without Limits Roman Bath Sulis Minerva (Mai 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Graeham

    on the ends of the moon, without guilt, without wine, she alone o_0 struck en *

  2. Astyrian

    Muidugi vabandan, kuid see ei sobi mulle üldse. Võib -olla on rohkem võimalusi?

  3. Moogusida

    likely yes

  4. Lucila

    Sa eksid. Kirjutage mulle PM -is, me räägime.

  5. Elam

    Oooh ... ma leban tooli all !!!!

  6. Ubadah

    What an interesting phrase



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